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Automatic Storm Damage Detection in Forests Using High‑Altitude Photogrammetric Imagery
Finnish Geodetic Institute, Geodeetinrinne 2, 02430 Masala, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2013; in revised form: 11 March 2013 / Accepted: 12 March 2013 / Published: 18 March 2013
Abstract: Climate change has increased the occurrence of heavy storms that cause damage to forests. After a storm, it is necessary to obtain knowledge about the injured trees quickly in order to detect and aid in collecting the fallen trees and estimate the total damage. The objective in this study was to develop an automatic method for storm damage detection based on comparisons of digital surface models (DSMs), where the after-storm DSM was derived by automatic image matching using high-altitude photogrammetric imagery. This DSM was compared to a before-storm DSM, which was computed using national airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. The developed method was tested using imagery collected in extreme illumination conditions after winter storms on 8 January 2012 in Finland. The image matching yielded a high-quality surface model of the forest areas, which were mainly coniferous and mixed forests. The entire set of major damage forest test areas was correctly classified using the method. Our results showed that airborne, high-altitude photogrammetry is a promising tool for automating the detection of forest storm damage. With modern photogrammetric cameras, large areas can be collected efficiently, and the imagery also provides visual, stereoscopic support for various forest storm damage management tasks. Developing methods that work in different seasons are becoming more important, due to the increase in the number of natural disasters.
Keywords: change detection; digital surface model; forest; storm damage; photogrammetry; image matching
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Honkavaara, E.; Litkey, P.; Nurminen, K. Automatic Storm Damage Detection in Forests Using High‑Altitude Photogrammetric Imagery. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 1405-1424.
Honkavaara E, Litkey P, Nurminen K. Automatic Storm Damage Detection in Forests Using High‑Altitude Photogrammetric Imagery. Remote Sensing. 2013; 5(3):1405-1424.
Honkavaara, Eija; Litkey, Paula; Nurminen, Kimmo. 2013. "Automatic Storm Damage Detection in Forests Using High‑Altitude Photogrammetric Imagery." Remote Sens. 5, no. 3: 1405-1424.