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Remote Sens. 2013, 5(11), 5550-5571; doi:10.3390/rs5115550
Article

Time-Space Variability of Chlorophyll-a and Associated Physical Variables within the Region off Central-Southern Chile

1,* , 2
, 2
 and 2
Received: 10 September 2013; in revised form: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 28 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton)
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Abstract: Time-space fluctuations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) within the region off central-southern Chile (33–42°S), and their association with meteorological-oceanographic conditions, were analyzed using satellite time series data (2002–2012). The mean distribution of moderate values of Chl-a (~0.5 mg∙m−3) in the northern section (33–38°S) extended out to ~200 km of the coast whereas they were restricted to a narrower band in the southern section (38–42°S). Mean wind stress and wind stress curl were upwelling favorable for most part of the year in the northern section whereas upwelling-downwelling periods were distinct in the southern section. The dominant frequency of Chl-a variability in the coastal zone and the coastal transition zone was annual, as it was for the rest of the variables, except in a transitional band between these zones and where a semi-permanent jet is located. At the annual frequency, the alongshore distribution of coastal Chl-a presented strong discontinuities, with minimum values around upwelling centers (~37 and 40°S) and higher values (> 2 mg∙m−3) in between. Also at the annual frequency, correlation analyses suggest that Ekman transport and Ekman pumping might act synchronously to extend the offshore distribution of the highest Chl-a values during the spring-summer period whereas mesoscale activity appears to contribute to Chl-a increases in the coastal transition zone. Sea surface temperature does not appear to be associated with the annual cycle of Chl-a in the coastal zone and in the coastal transition zone it might be linked to Chl-a variability through the effects of internal waves.
Keywords: satellite Chl-a; annual cycle; wind-driven upwelling; alongshore and across-shore differences; central-southern Chile satellite Chl-a; annual cycle; wind-driven upwelling; alongshore and across-shore differences; central-southern Chile
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Morales, C.E.; Hormazabal, S.; Andrade, I.; Correa-Ramirez, M.A. Time-Space Variability of Chlorophyll-a and Associated Physical Variables within the Region off Central-Southern Chile. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 5550-5571.

AMA Style

Morales CE, Hormazabal S, Andrade I, Correa-Ramirez MA. Time-Space Variability of Chlorophyll-a and Associated Physical Variables within the Region off Central-Southern Chile. Remote Sensing. 2013; 5(11):5550-5571.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morales, Carmen E.; Hormazabal, Samuel; Andrade, Isabel; Correa-Ramirez, Marco A. 2013. "Time-Space Variability of Chlorophyll-a and Associated Physical Variables within the Region off Central-Southern Chile." Remote Sens. 5, no. 11: 5550-5571.


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