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Remote Sens. 2013, 5(1), 127-154; doi:10.3390/rs5010127
Article

Environmental and Human Controls of Ecosystem Functional Diversity in Temperate South America

1,* , 2
,
3
 and
4
1 Departamento de Botánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain 2 Laboratorio de Análisis Regional y Teledetección, Departamento de Métodos Cuantitativos y Sistemas de Información, IFEVA-Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires y CONICET, Av. San Martín 4453, 1417 Buenos Aires, Argentina 3 Environmental Sciences Department, University of Virginia, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA 4 Departamento Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Centro Andaluz para la Evaluación y Seguimiento del Cambio Global, Universidad de Almería, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, La Cañada de San Urbano, E-04120 Almería, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2012 / Revised: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 24 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Biological Diversity)
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Abstract

The regional controls of biodiversity patterns have been traditionally evaluated using structural and compositional components at the species level, but evaluation of the functional component at the ecosystem level is still scarce. During the last decades, the role of ecosystem functioning in management and conservation has increased. Our aim was to use satellite-derived Ecosystem Functional Types (EFTs, patches of the land-surface with similar carbon gain dynamics) to characterize the regional patterns of ecosystem functional diversity and to evaluate the environmental and human controls that determine EFT richness across natural and human-modified systems in temperate South America. The EFT identification was based on three descriptors of carbon gain dynamics derived from seasonal curves of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI): annual mean (surrogate of primary production), seasonal coefficient of variation (indicator of seasonality) and date of maximum EVI (descriptor of phenology). As observed for species richness in the southern hemisphere, water availability, not energy, emerged as the main climatic driver of EFT richness in natural areas of temperate South America. In anthropogenic areas, the role of both water and energy decreased and increasing human intervention increased richness at low levels of human influence, but decreased richness at high levels of human influence.
Keywords: ecosystem functional diversity; ecosystem functional types; ecosystem functioning; environmental controls; human controls; MODIS EVI; richness; South America ecosystem functional diversity; ecosystem functional types; ecosystem functioning; environmental controls; human controls; MODIS EVI; richness; South America
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Alcaraz-Segura, D.; Paruelo, J.M.; Epstein, H.E.; Cabello, J. Environmental and Human Controls of Ecosystem Functional Diversity in Temperate South America. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 127-154.

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