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Remote Sens. 2012, 4(8), 2419-2431; doi:10.3390/rs4082419
Article

Evaluation of ASTER GDEM2 in Comparison with GDEM1, SRTM DEM and Topographic-Map-Derived DEM Using Inundation Area Analysis and RTK-dGPS Data

1,* , 1
, 2
, 3
 and 1
1 Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8529, Japan 2 Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527, Japan 3 Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jl. M.H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340, Indonesia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2012 / Revised: 25 July 2012 / Accepted: 2 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
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Abstract

This study evaluates the quality of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model version 2 (ASTER GDEM2) in comparison with the previous version (GDEM1) as well as the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) DEM and topographic-map-derived DEM (Topo-DEM) using inundation area analysis for the projected location of the Karian dam, Indonesia. In addition, the vertical accuracy of each DEM is evaluated using the Real-Time Kinematic differential Global Positioning Systems (RTK-dGPS) data obtained from an intensive geodetic survey. The results of the inundation area analysis show that GDEM2 produced a higher maximum contour level (MCL) (64 m) than did GDEM1 (55 m), and thus, GDME2 has a better quality. In addition, the GDEM2-derived MCL is similar to those produced by SRTM DEM (69 m) and Topo-DEM (62 m). The improvement in the contour level in GDEM2 is believed to be related to the successful removal of voids (artifacts) and anomalies present in GDEM1. However, our RTK-dGPS results show that the vertical accuracy of GDEM2 is much lower than that of GDEM1 and the other DEMs, which is contradictory to the accuracy stated in the GDEM2 validation document. The vertical profiles of all DEMs show that GDEM2 contains a comparatively large number of undulation effects, thereby resulting in higher root mean square error (RMSE) values. These undulation effects may have been introduced during the GDEM2 validation process. Although the results of this study may be site-specific, it is important that they be considered for the improvement of the next GDEM version.
Keywords: digital elevation model; vertical accuracy; undulation effects; Karian dam digital elevation model; vertical accuracy; undulation effects; Karian dam
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Suwandana, E.; Kawamura, K.; Sakuno, Y.; Kustiyanto, E.; Raharjo, B. Evaluation of ASTER GDEM2 in Comparison with GDEM1, SRTM DEM and Topographic-Map-Derived DEM Using Inundation Area Analysis and RTK-dGPS Data. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 2419-2431.

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