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Remote Sens. 2012, 4(5), 1272-1309; doi:10.3390/rs4051272

Review of the CALIMAS Team Contributions to European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission Calibration and Validation

1
Dept. Teoria del Senyal i Comunicacions, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya and IEEC/UPC, c/Jordi Girona 1-3, Campus Nord, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain
2
SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre, CSIC-UPC, Pg. Marítim Barceloneta, 37-49, E-08003 Barcelona, Spain
3
Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Pg. Marítim Barceloneta 37-49, E-08003 Barcelona, Spain
4
Unitat de Tecnologia Marina (UTM-CSIC), Pg. Marítim Barceloneta 37-49, E-08003 Barcelona, Spain
5
Electrical & Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, 1373 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
6
Centre de Recerca Ecològica i d’Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Campus de la UAB, E-08193Bellaterra, Spain
7
Department of Civil Engineering, Room 147, Building 60, Clayton Campus, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
8
NURC, Viale San Bartolomeo 400, I-19126 La Spezia, Italy
9
ESA/ESRIN, Via Galileo Galilei, Casella Postale 64, Frascati, I-00044 Rome, Italy
10
Serco SpA, Via Sciadonna, 24/26 Frascati, I-00044 Rome, Italy
11
Centro Hispano Luso de Investigaciones Agrarias (CIALE), University of Salamanca, E-37185 Villamayor, Spain
12
IEEC/ICE-CSIC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, C5/242, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 March 2012 / Revised: 17 April 2012 / Accepted: 18 April 2012 / Published: 4 May 2012

Abstract

This work summarizes the activities carried out by the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Barcelona Expert Center (SMOS-BEC) team in conjunction with the CIALE/Universidad de Salamanca team, within the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA) CALIMAS project in preparation for the SMOS mission and during its first year of operation. Under these activities several studies were performed, ranging from Level 1 (calibration and image reconstruction) to Level 4 (land pixel disaggregation techniques, by means of data fusion with higher resolution data from optical/infrared sensors). Validation of SMOS salinity products by means of surface drifters developed ad-hoc, and soil moisture products over the REMEDHUS site (Zamora, Spain) are also presented. Results of other preparatory activities carried out to improve the performance of eventual SMOS follow-on missions are presented, including GNSS-R to infer the sea state correction needed for improved ocean salinity retrievals and land surface parameters. Results from CALIMAS show a satisfactory performance of the MIRAS instrument, the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithms implemented in the ground data processors, and explore the limits of spatial resolution of soil moisture products using data fusion, as well as the feasibility of GNSS-R techniques for sea state determination and soil moisture monitoring.
Keywords: radiometry; interferometry; calibration; validation; imaging; radio frequency interference; ocean salinity; soil moisture; pixel disaggregation; GNSS-R; SMOS radiometry; interferometry; calibration; validation; imaging; radio frequency interference; ocean salinity; soil moisture; pixel disaggregation; GNSS-R; SMOS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Camps, A.; Font, J.; Corbella, I.; Vall-Llossera, M.; Portabella, M.; Ballabrera-Poy, J.; González, V.; Piles, M.; Aguasca, A.; Acevo, R.; Bosch, X.; Duffo, N.; Fernández, P.; Gabarró, C.; Gourrion, J.; Guimbard, S.; Marín, A.; Martínez, J.; Monerris, A.; Mourre, B.; Pérez, F.; Rodríguez, N.; Salvador, J.; Sabia, R.; Talone, M.; Torres, F.; Pablos, M.; Turiel, A.; Valencia, E.; Martínez-Fernández, J.; Sánchez, N.; Pérez-Gutiérrez, C.; Baroncini-Turricchia, G.; Rius, A.; Ribó, S. Review of the CALIMAS Team Contributions to European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission Calibration and Validation. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 1272-1309.

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