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Remote Sens. 2011, 3(3), 539-553; doi:10.3390/rs3030539
Article

Temporal Stability of the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 Scanner for High Accuracy Scanning Applications

1,†,*  and 2
Received: 10 February 2011; in revised form: 5 March 2011 / Accepted: 8 March 2011 / Published: 14 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Laser Scanning)
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Abstract: The temporal stability and static calibration and analysis of the Velodyne HDL‑64E S2 scanning LiDAR system is discussed and analyzed. The mathematical model for measurements for the HDL-64E S2 scanner is updated to include misalignments between the angular encoder and scanner axis of rotation, which are found to be a marginally significant source of error. It is reported that the horizontal and vertical laser offsets cannot reliably be obtained with the current calibration model due to their high correlation with the horizontal and vertical offsets. By analyzing observations from two separate HDL-64E S2 scanners it was found that the temporal stability of the horizontal angle offset is near the quantization level of the encoder, but the vertical angular offset, distance offset and distance scale are slightly larger than expected. This is felt to be due to long term variations in the scanner range, whose root cause is as of yet unidentified. Nevertheless, a temporally averaged calibration dataset for each of the scanners resulted in a 25% improvement in the 3D planar misclosure residual RMSE over the standard factory calibration model.
Keywords: LiDAR; system calibration; accuracy; error analysis; temporal stability LiDAR; system calibration; accuracy; error analysis; temporal stability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Glennie, C.; Lichti, D.D. Temporal Stability of the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 Scanner for High Accuracy Scanning Applications. Remote Sens. 2011, 3, 539-553.

AMA Style

Glennie C, Lichti DD. Temporal Stability of the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 Scanner for High Accuracy Scanning Applications. Remote Sensing. 2011; 3(3):539-553.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Glennie, Craig; Lichti, Derek D. 2011. "Temporal Stability of the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 Scanner for High Accuracy Scanning Applications." Remote Sens. 3, no. 3: 539-553.


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