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Temporal Stability of the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 Scanner for High Accuracy Scanning Applications
Terrapoint USA Inc., 25216 Grogans Park Drive, The Woodlands, TX 77380, USA
Department of Geomatics Engineering, The University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Current Affiliation: Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The University of Houston, Room 2008, 3605 Cullen Blvd, Houston, TX 77204, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2011; in revised form: 5 March 2011 / Accepted: 8 March 2011 / Published: 14 March 2011
Abstract: The temporal stability and static calibration and analysis of the Velodyne HDL‑64E S2 scanning LiDAR system is discussed and analyzed. The mathematical model for measurements for the HDL-64E S2 scanner is updated to include misalignments between the angular encoder and scanner axis of rotation, which are found to be a marginally significant source of error. It is reported that the horizontal and vertical laser offsets cannot reliably be obtained with the current calibration model due to their high correlation with the horizontal and vertical offsets. By analyzing observations from two separate HDL-64E S2 scanners it was found that the temporal stability of the horizontal angle offset is near the quantization level of the encoder, but the vertical angular offset, distance offset and distance scale are slightly larger than expected. This is felt to be due to long term variations in the scanner range, whose root cause is as of yet unidentified. Nevertheless, a temporally averaged calibration dataset for each of the scanners resulted in a 25% improvement in the 3D planar misclosure residual RMSE over the standard factory calibration model.
Keywords: LiDAR; system calibration; accuracy; error analysis; temporal stability
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Glennie, C.; Lichti, D.D. Temporal Stability of the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 Scanner for High Accuracy Scanning Applications. Remote Sens. 2011, 3, 539-553.
Glennie C, Lichti DD. Temporal Stability of the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 Scanner for High Accuracy Scanning Applications. Remote Sensing. 2011; 3(3):539-553.
Glennie, Craig; Lichti, Derek D. 2011. "Temporal Stability of the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 Scanner for High Accuracy Scanning Applications." Remote Sens. 3, no. 3: 539-553.