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GPS Bias Correction and Habitat Selection by Mountain Goats
Department of Environmental Sciences, Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University, 516 High St., Bellingham, WA 98226, USA
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, 600 Capitol Way North Olympia, WA 98501, USA
Current address: Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2010; in revised form: 24 February 2011 / Accepted: 24 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
Abstract: In Washington State, USA, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) have experienced a long-term population decline. To assist management, we created annual and seasonal (summer and winter) habitat models based on 2 years of data collected from 38 GPS-collared (GPS plus collar v6, Vectronic-Aerospace GmbH, Berlin, Germany) mountain goats in the western Cascades. To address GPS bias of position acquisition, we evaluated habitat and physiographic effects on GPS collar performance at 543 sites in the Cascades. In the western Cascades, total vegetation cover and the quadratic mean diameter of trees were shown to effect GPS performance. In the eastern Cascades, aspect and total vegetation cover were found to influence GPS performance. To evaluate the influence of bias correction on the analysis of habitat selection, we created resource selection functions with and without bias correction for mountain goats in the western Cascades. We examined how well the resultant habitat models performed with reserved data (25% of fixes from 38 study animals) and with data from 9 other GPS-collared mountain goats that were both temporally and spatially independent. The statistical properties of our GPS bias correction model were similar to those previously reported explaining between 20 and 30% of the variation, however, application of bias correction improved the accuracy of the mountain goat habitat model by only 1–2% on average and did not alter parameter estimates in a meaningful, or consistent manner. Despite statistical limitations, our habitat models, most notably during the winter, provided the widest extent and most detailed models of the distribution of mountain goat habitat in the Cascades yet developed.
Keywords: Cascades; habitat; GPS bias; mountain goat; resource selection function
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wells, A.G.; Wallin, D.O.; Rice, C.G.; Chang, W.-Y. GPS Bias Correction and Habitat Selection by Mountain Goats. Remote Sens. 2011, 3, 435-459.
Wells AG, Wallin DO, Rice CG, Chang W-Y. GPS Bias Correction and Habitat Selection by Mountain Goats. Remote Sensing. 2011; 3(3):435-459.
Wells, Adam G.; Wallin, David O.; Rice, Clifford G.; Chang, Wan-Ying. 2011. "GPS Bias Correction and Habitat Selection by Mountain Goats." Remote Sens. 3, no. 3: 435-459.