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Inferring Snow Water Equivalent for a Snow-Covered Ground Reflector Using GPS Multipath Signals
Montana State University Billings, 1500 University Drive, Billings, MT 59101, USA
Received: 9 September 2010; in revised form: 13 October 2010 / Accepted: 18 October 2010 / Published: 20 October 2010
Abstract: A nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm is used to estimate both snow depth and snow density for a snow-layer above a flat ground reflector. The product of these two quantities, snow depth and density, provides an estimate of the snow water equivalent. The input to this algorithm is a simple ray model that includes a speculary reflected signal along with a direct signal. These signals are transmitted from the global positioning system satellites at 1.57542 GHz with right-hand circularly polarization. The elevation angles of interest at the GPS receiving antenna are between 5° and 30°. The results from this nonlinear algorithm show potential for inferring snow water equivalent using GPS multipath signals.
Keywords: global positioning system (GPS); multipath; specular reflection; snow depth; snow density; snow water equivalent
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Jacobson, M.D. Inferring Snow Water Equivalent for a Snow-Covered Ground Reflector Using GPS Multipath Signals. Remote Sens. 2010, 2, 2426-2441.
Jacobson MD. Inferring Snow Water Equivalent for a Snow-Covered Ground Reflector Using GPS Multipath Signals. Remote Sensing. 2010; 2(10):2426-2441.
Jacobson, Mark D. 2010. "Inferring Snow Water Equivalent for a Snow-Covered Ground Reflector Using GPS Multipath Signals." Remote Sens. 2, no. 10: 2426-2441.