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Analysis of Incidence Angle and Distance Effects on Terrestrial Laser Scanner Intensity: Search for Correction Methods
Department of Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02431 Masala, Finland
Department of Mathematics, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 553, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2011; in revised form: 3 October 2011 / Accepted: 12 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
Abstract: The intensity information from terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) has become an important object of study in recent years, and there are an increasing number of applications that would benefit from the addition of calibrated intensity data to the topographic information. In this paper, we study the range and incidence angle effects on the intensity measurements and search for practical correction methods for different TLS instruments and targets. We find that the range (distance) effect is strongly dominated by instrumental factors, whereas the incidence angle effect is mainly caused by the target surface properties. Correction for both effects is possible, but more studies are needed for physical interpretation and more efficient use of intensity data for target characterization.
Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; intensity; radiometric calibration; incidence angle
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kaasalainen, S.; Jaakkola, A.; Kaasalainen, M.; Krooks, A.; Kukko, A. Analysis of Incidence Angle and Distance Effects on Terrestrial Laser Scanner Intensity: Search for Correction Methods. Remote Sens. 2011, 3, 2207-2221.
Kaasalainen S, Jaakkola A, Kaasalainen M, Krooks A, Kukko A. Analysis of Incidence Angle and Distance Effects on Terrestrial Laser Scanner Intensity: Search for Correction Methods. Remote Sensing. 2011; 3(10):2207-2221.
Kaasalainen, Sanna; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Krooks, Anssi; Kukko, Antero. 2011. "Analysis of Incidence Angle and Distance Effects on Terrestrial Laser Scanner Intensity: Search for Correction Methods." Remote Sens. 3, no. 10: 2207-2221.