Remote Sens. 2011, 3(10), 2207-2221; doi:10.3390/rs3102207
Article

Analysis of Incidence Angle and Distance Effects on Terrestrial Laser Scanner Intensity: Search for Correction Methods

1 Department of Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02431 Masala, Finland 2 Department of Mathematics, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 553, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2011; in revised form: 3 October 2011 / Accepted: 12 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Laser Scanning)
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Abstract: The intensity information from terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) has become an important object of study in recent years, and there are an increasing number of applications that would benefit from the addition of calibrated intensity data to the topographic information. In this paper, we study the range and incidence angle effects on the intensity measurements and search for practical correction methods for different TLS instruments and targets. We find that the range (distance) effect is strongly dominated by instrumental factors, whereas the incidence angle effect is mainly caused by the target surface properties. Correction for both effects is possible, but more studies are needed for physical interpretation and more efficient use of intensity data for target characterization.
Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; intensity; radiometric calibration; incidence angle

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaasalainen, S.; Jaakkola, A.; Kaasalainen, M.; Krooks, A.; Kukko, A. Analysis of Incidence Angle and Distance Effects on Terrestrial Laser Scanner Intensity: Search for Correction Methods. Remote Sens. 2011, 3, 2207-2221.

AMA Style

Kaasalainen S, Jaakkola A, Kaasalainen M, Krooks A, Kukko A. Analysis of Incidence Angle and Distance Effects on Terrestrial Laser Scanner Intensity: Search for Correction Methods. Remote Sensing. 2011; 3(10):2207-2221.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaasalainen, Sanna; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Krooks, Anssi; Kukko, Antero. 2011. "Analysis of Incidence Angle and Distance Effects on Terrestrial Laser Scanner Intensity: Search for Correction Methods." Remote Sens. 3, no. 10: 2207-2221.

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