Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Remote Sens. 2011, 3(1), 117-144; doi:10.3390/rs3010117
Article

SAR-Based Wind Resource Statistics in the Baltic Sea

* ,
,
,
 and
Received: 16 November 2010; in revised form: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 31 December 2010 / Published: 11 January 2011
Download PDF [1093 KB, updated 19 June 2014; original version uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Ocean winds in the Baltic Sea are expected to power many wind farms in the coming years. This study examines satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from Envisat ASAR for mapping wind resources with high spatial resolution. Around 900 collocated pairs of wind speed from SAR wind maps and from 10 meteorological masts, established specifically for wind energy in the study area, are compared. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based wind speed show a root mean square error of 1.17 m s−1, bias of −0.25 m s−1, standard deviation of 1.88 m s−1 and correlation coefficient of R2 0.783. Wind directions from a global atmospheric model, interpolated in time and space, are used as input to the geophysical model function CMOD-5 for SAR wind retrieval. Wind directions compared to mast observations show a root mean square error of 6.29° with a bias of 7.75°, standard deviation of 20.11° and R2 of 0.950. The scale and shape parameters, A and k, respectively, from the Weibull probability density function are compared at only one available mast and the results deviate ~2% for A but ~16% for k. Maps of A and k, and wind power density based on more than 1000 satellite images show wind power density values to range from 300 to 800 W m−2 for the 14 existing and 42 planned wind farms.
Keywords: offshore wind; satellite SAR; wind energy; wind resource offshore wind; satellite SAR; wind energy; wind resource
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Hasager, C.B.; Badger, M.; Peña, A.; Larsén, X.G.; Bingöl, F. SAR-Based Wind Resource Statistics in the Baltic Sea. Remote Sens. 2011, 3, 117-144.

AMA Style

Hasager CB, Badger M, Peña A, Larsén XG, Bingöl F. SAR-Based Wind Resource Statistics in the Baltic Sea. Remote Sensing. 2011; 3(1):117-144.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hasager, Charlotte B.; Badger, Merete; Peña, Alfredo; Larsén, Xiaoli G.; Bingöl, Ferhat. 2011. "SAR-Based Wind Resource Statistics in the Baltic Sea." Remote Sens. 3, no. 1: 117-144.


Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert