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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(9), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10091448

Comparison of C-Band Quad-Polarization Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrieval Models

1
School of Marine Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2, Canada
3
School of Remote Sensing and Geomatics Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
4
Laboratory for Regional Oceanography and Numerical Modeling, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China
5
State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Hangzhou 310012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Roughness Observed by High Resolution Radar)
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Abstract

This work discusses the accuracy of C-2PO (C-band cross-polarized ocean backscatter) and CMOD4 (C-band model) geophysical model functions (GMF) for sea surface wind speed retrieval from satellite-born Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images over in the Northwest Pacific off the coast of China. In situ observations are used for comparison of the retrieved wind speed using two established wind retrieval models: C-2PO model and CMOD4 GMF. Using 439 samples from 92 RADARSAT-2 fine quad-polarization SAR images and corresponding reference winds, we created two subset wind speed databases: the training and testing subsets. From the training data subset, we retrieve ocean surface wind speeds (OSWSs) from different models at each polarization and compare with reference wind speeds. The RMSEs of SAR-retrieved wind speeds are: 2.5 m/s: 2.11 m/s (VH-polarized), 2.13 m/s (HV-polarized), 1.86 m/s (VV-polarized) and 2.26 m/s (HH-polarized) and the correlation coefficients are 0.86 (VH-polarized), 0.85(HV-polarized), 0.87(VV-polarized) and 0.83 (HH-polarized), which are statistically significant at the 99.9% significance level. Moreover, we found that OSWSs retrieved using C-2PO model at VH-polarized are most suitable for moderate-to-high winds while CMOD4 GMF at VV-polarized tend to be best for low-to-moderate winds. A hybrid wind retrieval model is put forward composed of the two models, C-2PO and CMOD4 and sets of SAR test data are used in order to establish an appropriate wind speed threshold, to differentiate the wind speed range appropriate for one model from that of the other. The results show that the OSWSs retrieved using our hybrid method has RMSE of 1.66 m/s and the correlation coefficient are 0.9, thereby significantly outperforming both the C-2PO and CMOD4 models. View Full-Text
Keywords: ocean surface wind speed retrieval; synthetic aperture radar (SAR); quad-polarized SAR ocean surface wind speed retrieval; synthetic aperture radar (SAR); quad-polarized SAR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Fang, H.; Xie, T.; Perrie, W.; Zhang, G.; Yang, J.; He, Y. Comparison of C-Band Quad-Polarization Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Retrieval Models. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1448.

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