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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(8), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10081299

Extraction of Sample Plot Parameters from 3D Point Cloud Reconstruction Based on Combined RTK and CCD Continuous Photography

1
Precision Forestry Key Laboratory of Beijing, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Mapping and 3S Technology Center, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
3
School of Land Resources and Urban and Rural Planning, Heibei GEO University, Shijiazhuang 050031, China
4
School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aerial and Near-Field Remote Sensing Developments in Forestry)
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Abstract

Enriching forest resource inventory is important to ensure the sustainable management of forest ecosystems. Obtaining forest inventory data from the field has always been difficult, laborious, time consuming, and expensive. Advances in integrating photogrammetry and computer vision have helped researchers develop some numeric algorithms and methods that can turn 2D (images) into 3D (point clouds) and are highly applicable to forestry. This paper aimed to develop a new, highly accurate methodology that extracts sample plot parameters based on continuous terrestrial photogrammetry. For this purpose, we designed and implemented a terrestrial observation instrument combining real-time kinematic (RTK) and charge-coupled device (CCD) continuous photography. Then, according to the set observation plan, three independent experimental plots were continuously photographed and the 3D point cloud of the plot was generated. From this 3D point cloud, the tree position coordinates, tree DBHs, tree heights, and other plot characteristics of the forest were extracted. The plot characteristics obtained from the 3D point cloud were compared with the measurement data obtained from the field to check the accuracy of our methodology. We obtained the position coordinates of the trees with the positioning accuracy (RMSE) of 0.162 m to 0.201 m. The relative root mean square error (rRMSE) of the trunk diameter measurements was 3.07% to 4.51%, which met the accuracy requirements of traditional forestry surveys. The hypsometrical measurements were due to the occlusion of the forest canopy and the estimated rRMSE was 11.26% to 11.91%, which is still good reference data. Furthermore, these image-based point cloud data also have portable observation instruments, low data collection costs, high field measurement efficiency, automatic data processing, and they can directly extract tree geographic location information, which may be interesting and important for certain applications such as the protection of registered famous trees. For forest inventory, continuous terrestrial photogrammetry with its unique advantages is a solution that deserves future attention in the field of tree detection and ecological construction. View Full-Text
Keywords: forestry; image-based point cloud; continuous terrestrial photogrammetry; forest inventory; geographical location forestry; image-based point cloud; continuous terrestrial photogrammetry; forest inventory; geographical location
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, J.; Feng, Z.; Yang, L.; Mannan, A.; Khan, T.U.; Zhao, Z.; Cheng, Z. Extraction of Sample Plot Parameters from 3D Point Cloud Reconstruction Based on Combined RTK and CCD Continuous Photography. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1299.

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