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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(8), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10081297

Comparison of Seven Inversion Models for Estimating Plant and Woody Area Indices of Leaf-on and Leaf-off Forest Canopy Using Explicit 3D Forest Scenes

1
Spatial Information Research Center of Fujian Province, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
3
Key Laboratory of Data Mining and Information Sharing, Ministry of Education, Fuzhou 350116, China
4
CREA—Research Centre for Agriculture and Environment, via della Navicella 2-4, 00184 Rome, Italy
5
Key Laboratory of Digital Earth Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
6
Department of Geography, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350108, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Remote Sensing)
Full-Text   |   PDF [13280 KB, uploaded 17 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Optical methods require model inversion to infer plant area index (PAI) and woody area index (WAI) of leaf-on and leaf-off forest canopy from gap fraction or radiation attenuation measurements. Several inversion models have been developed previously, however, a thorough comparison of those inversion models in obtaining the PAI and WAI of leaf-on and leaf-off forest canopy has not been conducted so far. In the present study, an explicit 3D forest scene series with different PAI, WAI, phenological periods, stand density, tree species composition, plant functional types, canopy element clumping index, and woody component clumping index was generated using 50 detailed 3D tree models. The explicit 3D forest scene series was then used to assess the performance of seven commonly used inversion models to estimate the PAI and WAI of the leaf-on and leaf-off forest canopy. The PAI and WAI estimated from the seven inversion models and simulated digital hemispherical photography images were compared with the true PAI and WAI of leaf-on and leaf-off forest scenes. Factors that contributed to the differences between the estimates of the seven inversion models were analyzed. Results show that both the factors of inversion model, canopy element and woody component projection functions, canopy element and woody component estimation algorithms, and segment size are contributed to the differences between the PAI and WAI estimated from the seven inversion models. There is no universally valid combination of inversion model, needle-to-shoot area ratio, canopy element and woody component clumping index estimation algorithm, and segment size that can accurately measure the PAI and WAI of all leaf-on and leaf-off forest canopies. The performance of the combinations of inversion model, needle-to-shoot area ratio, canopy element and woody component clumping index estimation algorithm, and segment size to estimate the PAI and WAI of leaf-on and leaf-off forest canopies is the function of the inversion model as well as the canopy element and woody component clumping index estimation algorithm, segment size, PAI, WAI, tree species composition, and plant functional types. The impact of canopy element and woody component projection function measurements on the PAI and WAI estimation of the leaf-on and leaf-off forest canopy can be reduced to a low level (<4%) by adopting appropriate inversion models. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant area index (PAI); leaf area index (LAI); woody area index (WAI); clumping effect; inversion model; canopy element and woody component projection functions; digital hemispherical photography; forest canopy; forest scenes plant area index (PAI); leaf area index (LAI); woody area index (WAI); clumping effect; inversion model; canopy element and woody component projection functions; digital hemispherical photography; forest canopy; forest scenes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zou, J.; Zhuang, Y.; Chianucci, F.; Mai, C.; Lin, W.; Leng, P.; Luo, S.; Yan, B. Comparison of Seven Inversion Models for Estimating Plant and Woody Area Indices of Leaf-on and Leaf-off Forest Canopy Using Explicit 3D Forest Scenes. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1297.

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