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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030485

Improving SMOS Sea Surface Salinity in the Western Mediterranean Sea through Multivariate and Multifractal Analysis

1
Department of Physical Oceanography, Institute of Marine Sciences, CSIC, Barcelona Expert Center, Pg. Marítim 37-49, Barcelona E-08003, Spain
2
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS/INSU, Université de Toulon, IRD, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), F-83507 La Seyne, Marseille, France
3
Département d’astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO), GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER), Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août, 17 Sart Tilman, Liège 4000, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Salinity Remote Sensing)
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Abstract

A new methodology using a combination of debiased non-Bayesian retrieval, DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions) and multifractal fusion has been used to obtain Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) fields over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The debiased non-Bayesian retrieval mitigates the systematic errors produced by the contamination of the land over the sea. In addition, this retrieval improves the coverage by means of multiyear statistical filtering criteria. This methodology allows obtaining SMOS SSS fields in the Mediterranean Sea. However, the resulting SSS suffers from a seasonal (and other time-dependent) bias. This time-dependent bias has been characterized by means of specific Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). Finally, high resolution Sea Surface Temperature (OSTIA SST) maps have been used for improving the spatial and temporal resolution of the SMOS SSS maps. The presented methodology practically reduces the error of the SMOS SSS in the Mediterranean Sea by half. As a result, the SSS dynamics described by the new SMOS maps in the Algerian Basin and the Balearic Front agrees with the one described by in situ SSS, and the mesoscale structures described by SMOS in the Alboran Sea and in the Gulf of Lion coincide with the ones described by the high resolution remotely-sensed SST images (AVHRR).
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Keywords: sea surface salinity; remote sensing; mediterranean sea; smos; alboran sea; data processing; quality assessment sea surface salinity; remote sensing; mediterranean sea; smos; alboran sea; data processing; quality assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Olmedo, E.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Turiel, A.; Alvera-Azcárate, A. Improving SMOS Sea Surface Salinity in the Western Mediterranean Sea through Multivariate and Multifractal Analysis. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 485.

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