- freely available
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1603; doi:10.3390/su9091603
2. Ecosystem Stewardship and Resource Management
- 6.3: By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping, and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally.
- 9.4: By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities.
- 12.1: Implement the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries.
3. Crossing Planetary Boundaries
4. Crossing Social Boundaries of Health and Well-being
‘It has long been recognized that a clean, healthy and functional environment is integral to the enjoyment of human rights, such as the rights to life, health, food, and an adequate standard of living’.( p. viii)
- provisioning services including those providing food, water, timber, and fibre;
- supporting services including soil formation, photosynthesis, and nutrient cycling;
- regulating services including managing the climate, floods, disease, wastes, and water quality; and
- cultural services including those with recreational, aesthetic, and spiritual benefits.
5. Economic Models of Waste and Resource Flows
- advances in sciences (economics, environmental, engineering and social) to develop new processing technologies and business models;
- methodologies that can account for emissions to the biosphere and impacts on the environment, human health, and social wellbeing; and
- economic models that can assess the true (i.e., economic, social and environmental) costs and benefits of materials and wastes.
6. Science and Technology
6.1. From End-of-Pipe Approaches to Whole System Design
6.2. Multi-Dimensional Value Assessments for Circular Supply Chains
7. Rebalancing Resource Recovery and Waste Overload
- designers, manufacturers, consumers, and waste processers along the supply chain;
- academia to provide the evidence base, enabling technologies and analytical tools; and
- politicians and regulators to provide legislation that changes behaviours and supports markets, supported by NGOs where governments have failed.
7.1. Participatory Approaches for the Circular Economy
- contribute to greater social inclusiveness and empowerment of stakeholders;
- promote social learning and thereby strengthen connections between diverse societal segments and transform adversarial relations (for example, between proponents of environmental protection and economic growth);
- increase the quality of information and solutions, not least due to embeddedness into specific (geographic) contexts; and
- increase acceptance and commitment to the solutions that can also contribute to prevention of implementation issues and consequently reduce costs when bringing a solution into practice.
7.2. Participation Strategy of the Resource Recovery from Waste Programme
- Stakeholder and network analysis
- Understanding learning and innovation pathways
- Detailing engagement activities
- learning and innovation mechanisms;
- openness to external (compared to in-house generated) knowledge;
- the types of contacts considered reliable and trustworthy when gathering information about changing business practices, business improvements, and innovations; and
- the types and credibility of communication channels used when exchanging information with the identified knowledge providers.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Planetary Boundary||Relation to Waste and Resource Management|
|Climate change||Mainly driven by use of fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation; reflected in CO2 concentration, increased number of heatwaves and heavy rainfall events, droughts, and polar ice mass loss .|
|Ozone depletion||Caused by a combination of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances such as CFCs and nitric acid.|
|Ocean acidification||Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use leads to ocean acidification by dissolving in sea water as well as carbon uptake by marine organisms.|
|Biogeochemical loading||Atmospheric N2 is converted into biologically active forms through industrial ammonia production, crop production, and burning of fossil-fuels and biomass. Most N2 intended for crop fertilisers dissipates into the (aquatic) environment where it causes pollution. While P dissipates into the environment through natural processes, the human use of detergents and sewage effluent flows adds to P loading in the (aquatic) environment.|
|Land system change||Land conversion to crop land and agricultural intensification. Controllable by only using most productive areas for crops, limiting land degradation, maintaining irrigation water flows, and managing competing land-uses including urbanisation and biofuel production as well as managing consumption patterns and waste generation.|
|Rate of biodiversity loss (biosphere integrity )||Including genetic and functional diversity . Humanity accelerated biodiversity loss by 100–1000 times Earth’s historic extinction rates. Species loss is driven by habitat loss and degradation, overexploitation, species introductions, climate change, and pollution.|
|Global freshwater use||Temporal and spatial flows of freshwater are mainly controlled by people, affecting other resource flows such as access to food and precipitation patterns.|
|Atmospheric aerosol loading||Global concentrations of aerosols have doubled due to human activity in the past 250 years, impacting precipitation patterns and human health (especially respiratory diseases). Aerosol loading can also impact agricultural productivity, forest cover, and freshwater fish.|
|Chemical pollution||This includes pollution through heavy metals, organic compounds of human origin, and radioactive compounds, impacting human health and the physiology of other life. Exposure can be direct through air, water, and soil but also through accumulation in food chains. Effects are not necessarily directly lethal but can disrupt endocrine systems etc. For some chemicals, planetary boundaries have been crossed (e.g., POPs such as dioxins and DDT); however, determining whether the overall planetary boundary has been crossed is not possible yet due to the large range and complexity of chemicals produced by humanity.|
|Right to:||Relation to Environment and Waste and Resource Management|
|Life||Depending on access to other fundamental rights to food, water, health and shelter. |
Personal safety and security from natural and man-made disasters (linked to e.g., climate change and changing water flows).
|Water||Water and sanitation are recognised as fundamental to physical and mental health and the right to life, disease prevention, and living a life in dignity.|
|Food||Food production depends on environmental quality such as climate, soil, water and biodiversity.|
|Health||Related to changes in land use, migration, and environmental degradation giving space for spreading of diseases. |
Linked in particular to access to clean air and water.
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