Next Article in Journal
Simulation Study on the Effect of Reduced Inputs of Artificial Neural Networks on the Predictive Performance of the Solar Energy System
Next Article in Special Issue
An Integrated Assessment Framework of Offshore Wind Power Projects Applying Equator Principles and Social Life Cycle Assessment
Previous Article in Journal
Alfalfa Water Use and Yield under Different Sprinkler Irrigation Regimes in North Arid Regions of China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Selecting Persuasive Strategies and Game Design Elements for Encouraging Energy Saving Behavior
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1377; doi:10.3390/su9081377

Scenarios of Phosphorus Flow from Agriculture and Domestic Wastewater in Myanmar (2010–2100)

1
Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
2
, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1034 KB, uploaded 5 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Transfer of nutrients from agriculture and wastewater to the hydrosphere attracts attention of policymakers and scientists due to an increasingly important influence on the water environment. Crop and livestock production and fisheries predominantly support the Myanmar economy. However, phosphorus (P), which is used in cultivation and is also present in domestic sewage, is a major source of biogenic pollutants and eutrophication in Myanmar. It is therefore necessary to elucidate P flows from agricultural and domestic wastewaters to formulate a series of cost-effective policies and best-management practices (BMPs). This paper describes P flows to the hydrosphere, as driven by agricultural and domestic wastewater use in Myanmar during 2010–2100. The results reveal that total P flow from farmland and livestock occurred at 55 thousand Mg/year (thousand million grams per annum) in 2010 but is expected to be 128–141 thousand Mg/year in 2100. Urban population growth is the main factor contributing to the gradual increase in P flow from domestic wastewater; however, most of the P flow is derived from agriculture, suggesting that marked reductions in fertilizer use are necessary. This research provides basic information for the appraisal of P utilization and facilitates the identification of important objectives for sustainable P management in Myanmar. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable phosphorus management; phosphorus ore depletion; agricultural pollution; fertilizer; sewage sustainable phosphorus management; phosphorus ore depletion; agricultural pollution; fertilizer; sewage
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lwin, C.M.; Maung, K.N.; Murakami, M.; Hashimoto, S. Scenarios of Phosphorus Flow from Agriculture and Domestic Wastewater in Myanmar (2010–2100). Sustainability 2017, 9, 1377.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top