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Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1351; doi:10.3390/su9081351

A Country-Specific Water Consumption Inventory Considering International Trade in Asian Countries Using a Multi-Regional Input-Output Table

1
Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
2
Rural Research Institute, Korea Rural Community Corporation, Gyeonggi 426-908, Korea
3
Faculty of Environmental Studies, Tokyo City University, Yokohama 224-8551, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 May 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract

Interest in the impacts of water use in the life cycle of products and services are increasing among various stakeholders. The water footprint is a tool to identify critical and effective points for reducing the impact of water use through the entire life cycle of products, services, and organizations. The purpose of this study was to develop a water consumption inventory database that focused on identifying of Asian water consumption using an input-output (IO) framework. An Asia International Input-Output table (AIIO) was applied in this study. The amount of water consumption required for agricultural products was estimated by modeling; for other sectors it was estimated from statistical reports. The intensities of direct water consumption in each sector were calculated by dividing the amount of water consumption by the domestic production. Based on the IO analysis using Leontief’s inverse matrix, the intensities of water consumption from cradle to gate were estimated for all goods and services. There was high intensity of water consumption in the primary industry sectors, together with a high dependency on rainwater as an input water source. The water consumption intensities generally showed a larger reduction in secondary sectors, in comparison with the tertiary sectors, due to the use of recycled water. There were differences between this study and previous studies due to the use of site-specific production data and the temporal resolution of crop production. By considering site-specific conditions, it is expected that the dataset developed here can be used for estimating the water footprint of products, services, and organizations in nine countries (Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and USA). View Full-Text
Keywords: water footprint; Asia; water consumption; water resource types; inventory database; input-output analysis water footprint; Asia; water consumption; water resource types; inventory database; input-output analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ono, Y.; Kim, Y.D.; Itsubo, N. A Country-Specific Water Consumption Inventory Considering International Trade in Asian Countries Using a Multi-Regional Input-Output Table. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1351.

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