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Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 332; doi:10.3390/su9030332

Performance versus Values in Sustainability Transformation of Food Systems

1
The New Zealand Sustainability Dashboard Project, Centre for Sustainability: Agriculture, Food, Energy, Environment, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2
Centre for Sustainability: Agriculture, Food, Energy, Environment, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
3
UMR 1248 AGIR AGroécologie, Innovations, teRritoires, Université de Toulouse, INRA, INPT, INP-EI PURPAN, Auzeville 31320, France
4
Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, PO Box 85084 Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
5
Danish Centre for Rural Research. Department of Environmental and Business Economics, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg 6700, Denmark
6
The AgriBusiness Group, P.O Box 85016, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lassi Linnanen and Iain Gordon
Received: 7 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [329 KB, uploaded 24 February 2017]

Abstract

Questions have been raised on what role the knowledge provided by sustainability science actually plays in the transition to sustainability and what role it may play in the future. In this paper we investigate different approaches to sustainability transformation of food systems by analyzing the rationale behind transformative acts-the ground that the direct agents of change act upon- and how the type of rationale is connected to the role of research and how the agents of change are involved. To do this we employ Max Weber’s distinction between instrumental rationality and value-rationality in social action. In particular, we compare two different approaches to the role of research in sustainability transformation: (1) Performance-based approaches that measure performance and set up sustainability indicator targets and benchmarks to motivate the agents in the food system to change; (2) Values-based approaches that aim at communicating and mediating sustainability values to enable coordinated and cooperative action to transform the food system. We identify their respective strengths and weaknesses based on a cross-case analysis of four cases, and propose that the two approaches, like Weber’s two types of rationality, are complementary-because they are based on complementary observer stances—and that an optimal in-between approach therefore cannot be found. However, there are options for reflexive learning by observing one perspective-and its possible blind spots-from the vantage point of the other, so we suggest that new strategies for sustainability transformation can be found based on reflexive rationality as a third and distinct type of rationality. View Full-Text
Keywords: complementarity; food systems; perspectives; rationality; sustainability assessment; sustainability transformation; sustainability transition; sustainability science complementarity; food systems; perspectives; rationality; sustainability assessment; sustainability transformation; sustainability transition; sustainability science
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alrøe, H.F.; Sautier, M.; Legun, K.; Whitehead, J.; Noe, E.; Moller, H.; Manhire, J. Performance versus Values in Sustainability Transformation of Food Systems. Sustainability 2017, 9, 332.

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