Next Article in Journal
The Influence of Household Heterogeneity Factors on the Green Travel Behavior of Urban Residents in the East China Region
Next Article in Special Issue
Use of Novel Composite Coagulants for Arsenic Removal from Waters—Experimental Insight for the Application of Polyferric Sulfate (PFS)
Previous Article in Journal
Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmentally Sound Technology in Endogenous Firm Growth
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 238; doi:10.3390/su9020238

Efficiency of Iron-Based Oxy-Hydroxides in Removing Antimony from Groundwater to Levels below the Drinking Water Regulation Limits

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3041 KB, uploaded 10 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

This study evaluates the efficiency of iron-based oxy-hydroxides to remove antimony from groundwater to meet the requirements of drinking water regulations. Results obtained by batch adsorption experiments indicated that the qualified iron oxy-hydroxide (FeOOH), synthesized at pH 4 for maintaining a high positive charge density (2.5 mmol OH/g) achieved a residual concentration of Sb(III) below the EU drinking water regulation limit of 5 μg/L by providing an adsorption capacity of 3.1 mg/g. This is more than twice greater compared either to similar commercial FeOOHs (GFH, Bayoxide) or to tetravalent manganese feroxyhyte (Fe-MnOOH) adsorbents. In contrast, all tested adsorbents failed to achieve a residual concentration below 5 μg/L for Sb(V). The higher efficiency of the qualified FeOOH was confirmed by rapid small-scale column tests, since an adsorption capacity of 3 mg Sb(III)/g was determined at a breakthrough concentration of 5 μg/L. However, it completely failed to achieve Sb(V) concentrations below 5 μg/L even at the beginning of the column experiments. The results of leaching tests classified the spent qualified FeOOH to inert wastes. Considering the rapid kinetics of this process (i.e., 85% of total removal was performed within 10 min), the developed qualified adsorbent may be promoted as a prospective material for point-of-use Sb(III) removal from water in vulnerable communities, since the adsorbent’s cost was estimated to be close to 30 ± 3.4 €/103 m3 for every 10 μg Sb(III)/L removed. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimony; drinking water; adsorption; iron oxy-hydroxides; column tests; surface charge antimony; drinking water; adsorption; iron oxy-hydroxides; column tests; surface charge
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Simeonidis, K.; Papadopoulou, V.; Tresintsi, S.; Kokkinos, E.; Katsoyiannis, I.A.; Zouboulis, A.I.; Mitrakas, M. Efficiency of Iron-Based Oxy-Hydroxides in Removing Antimony from Groundwater to Levels below the Drinking Water Regulation Limits. Sustainability 2017, 9, 238.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top