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Special Issue "Recent Advances for Water and Wastewater Treatment and Reuse with Emphasis in Applications in Vulnerable Communities"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Assist. Prof. Dr. Ioannis A. Katsoyiannis

Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemical Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Box 116, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +30-2310-97977
Interests: arsenic contamination of groundwaters; chromium(VI); uranium; drinking water; wastewater reuse; leachate treatment; water quality; nitrate and phosphate at agrocultural sites and its reuse; ozonation; adsorption; hybrid treatment units; coagulation-microfiltration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Freshwater is crucial for human well-being and sustainable socio-economic development. Worldwide, an estimated 748 million people remain without access to an improved source of drinking water, and water demand for manufacturing is expected to increase by 400 percent between 2000 and 2050, globally. About 2.5 billion people remain without access to improved sanitation, especially in Sub-Saharan countries. A large quantity of water is wasted as wastewater, arising from several activities, such as industrial and agricultural activities. Environmental pollution, arising from the discharge of untreated wastewater, is increasing, and the quest for finding different water and wastewater treatment methods is highly encouraged, especially for developing countries and for areas which lack community piped drinking water and sufficient energy supply. Therefore, this Special Issue seeks to highlight new studies and research highlighting recent advancements with regard to water and wastewater treatment and re-use.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • New techniques for water and wastewater treatment
  • Methods for water analysis and water quality monitoring
  • Development of different materials for water and wastewater treatment
  • Application of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment process
  • Description of water utilities in developing countries
  • Case studies for the application of adsorption process for real wastewater treatment:
  • Optimization of the treatment process
  • Production of biofilters
  • Reuse of treated water and its environmental impact
  • Contaminants in water and wastewater
  • Biological wastewater treatment:
  • Zero liquid discharge
  • Brine treatment

Prof. Dr. Ioannis A. Katsoyiannis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hybrid treatment units
  • adsorption
  • oxidation
  • energy demand
  • biological water treatment
  • wastewater reuse

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Disinfection in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Evaluation of Effectiveness and Acute Toxicity Effects
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1704; doi:10.3390/su9101704
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
In Italy, urban wastewater disinfection is regulated in the third part of Legislative Decree n. 152/2006, which states that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) must include a disinfection unit, with a capacity exceeding 2000 Population Equivalent (PE). This treatment shall ensure microbial quality and
[...] Read more.
In Italy, urban wastewater disinfection is regulated in the third part of Legislative Decree n. 152/2006, which states that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) must include a disinfection unit, with a capacity exceeding 2000 Population Equivalent (PE). This treatment shall ensure microbial quality and health security. The legislation provides the following limits for wastewater: Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration below 5000 CFU 100 mL−1 (recommended value), active chlorine concentration below 0.2 mg L−1 and lack of acute toxicity. The compliance with these conditions is shown by means of the study of correct disinfectant dosage, which also depends on wastewater characteristics. An investigation at the regional level (from 2013 to 2016) shows a correlation between acute toxicity discharge and disinfection treatment through chemical reagents (mainly with the use of chlorine compounds and peracetic acid). The experimental work concerns two active sludge WWTPs in northern Italy with small capacity (10,000–12,000 PE). The activities provide the assessment of microbiological quality and toxicity of WWTPs effluents in relation to the dosage of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, by means of the use of batch tests. The results show that with similar disinfectant dosage and comparable initial E. coli concentration, peracetic acid exhibits the best performance in terms of microbial removal (with removal yields up to 99.99%). Moreover, the acute toxicity was evident at higher doses and therefore with higher residuals of peracetic acid (2.68 mg L−1) compared to the free residual chlorine (0.17 mg L−1). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Use of Novel Composite Coagulants for Arsenic Removal from Waters—Experimental Insight for the Application of Polyferric Sulfate (PFS)
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 590; doi:10.3390/su9040590
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
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Abstract
In the present study, several pre-polymerized coagulants of iron and aluminum were tested for their efficiency towards As(V) and As(III) removal from water sources. The results showed that the pre-polymerized coagulants of iron, such as poly-ferric sulfate and poly-ferric silicate chloride, were very
[...] Read more.
In the present study, several pre-polymerized coagulants of iron and aluminum were tested for their efficiency towards As(V) and As(III) removal from water sources. The results showed that the pre-polymerized coagulants of iron, such as poly-ferric sulfate and poly-ferric silicate chloride, were very efficient for As(V) removal. With regard to As(III) removal, among all examined coagulants, including the conventional ferric chloride, only the poly-ferric sulfate (PFS) was able to reduce As(III) to concentrations below the drinking water regulation limit of 10 μg/L. In contrast, all tested composite coagulants based on aluminum were not capable of removing efficiently both species of arsenic. PFS addition in water containing 4 mM of alkalinity and 25 μg/L of As(V) and As(III) (i.e., total arsenic concentration 50 μg/L) resulted in finished water with less than 5 μg/L arsenic, only by dosing 5 mg Fe-PFS/L at pH 7, whereas, simultaneously, the residual iron concentration was found well below its drinking water regulation limit of 200 μg/L. The use of PFS could provide a viable alternative for As(III) and As(V) removal at household treatment level for application in vulnerable communities, without the need of any additional treatment, such as oxidation of As(III) to As(V). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Efficiency of Iron-Based Oxy-Hydroxides in Removing Antimony from Groundwater to Levels below the Drinking Water Regulation Limits
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 238; doi:10.3390/su9020238
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluates the efficiency of iron-based oxy-hydroxides to remove antimony from groundwater to meet the requirements of drinking water regulations. Results obtained by batch adsorption experiments indicated that the qualified iron oxy-hydroxide (FeOOH), synthesized at pH 4 for maintaining a high positive
[...] Read more.
This study evaluates the efficiency of iron-based oxy-hydroxides to remove antimony from groundwater to meet the requirements of drinking water regulations. Results obtained by batch adsorption experiments indicated that the qualified iron oxy-hydroxide (FeOOH), synthesized at pH 4 for maintaining a high positive charge density (2.5 mmol OH/g) achieved a residual concentration of Sb(III) below the EU drinking water regulation limit of 5 μg/L by providing an adsorption capacity of 3.1 mg/g. This is more than twice greater compared either to similar commercial FeOOHs (GFH, Bayoxide) or to tetravalent manganese feroxyhyte (Fe-MnOOH) adsorbents. In contrast, all tested adsorbents failed to achieve a residual concentration below 5 μg/L for Sb(V). The higher efficiency of the qualified FeOOH was confirmed by rapid small-scale column tests, since an adsorption capacity of 3 mg Sb(III)/g was determined at a breakthrough concentration of 5 μg/L. However, it completely failed to achieve Sb(V) concentrations below 5 μg/L even at the beginning of the column experiments. The results of leaching tests classified the spent qualified FeOOH to inert wastes. Considering the rapid kinetics of this process (i.e., 85% of total removal was performed within 10 min), the developed qualified adsorbent may be promoted as a prospective material for point-of-use Sb(III) removal from water in vulnerable communities, since the adsorbent’s cost was estimated to be close to 30 ± 3.4 €/103 m3 for every 10 μg Sb(III)/L removed. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Use of Sulfate Radical Advanced Oxidation Technology for Emerging Contaminant Degradation: A Mini Review of Recent Developments
Authors: Monica Brienza * and Ioannis A. Katsoyiannis
Affiliation: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Thessaloniki, Greece
* Corresponding author Email: monica.brienza@unibas.it
Abstract: Water scarcity and water pollution is a concerning problem worldwide and has driven research into eco-friendly and low-energy cost efficient remediation, intending to the reuse of wastewater for non potable purpose, after proper treatment. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) based on the in-situ generation of hydroxyl radicals have been intensively investigated for this purpose. Hydroxyl radicals generated by AOP, follow unselective multi-step pathways which limit their efficiency in complex environmental matrices. To overcome such limitations, AOP treatment based on generation of sulfate radicals have been developed and widely investigated. This current review study will cover the most recent developments regarding emerging contaminants removal using sulfate radicals generated by activated persulfate or peroxymonosulfate, with focus on on application to wastewater effluents for possible wastewater reuse.

Title: Reducing Community-Level Vulnerability to Water-Related Climate Extremes through Water Management and Infrastructure Design and Adaptation
Authors: Bruno H. Hernani Merino 1,2,*, Dena W. McMartin 1
Affiliations: 1 Environmental Systems Engineering, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2, Canada
2 Department of Sociology and Social Studies, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2, Canada
Abstract: As climate becomes more unpredictable and water-related extremes such as floods and droughts are intensified, water management and infrastructure developments are intensively challenged. Municipal infrastructure technologies and designs are long-term investments and capital projects that cannot be quickly replaced or adapted and may not only be inadequate for handling increased intensity, duration and frequency of water-related climate extremes but actively erode community resiliency to those extremes. Results from interview and survey methods in rural agriculturally-driven communities indicate that respondents are significantly more concerned about infrastructure capacity and response to flood conditions (78%) than drought. Not only are infrastructure technologies more vulnerable to performance and capacity impacts of excessive water, but the communities relying on those infrastructures for protection, control, and mitigation of extreme water events are similarly increasingly vulnerable. The results of this research indicate impacts not only on the physical infrastructure of communities, but the social fabric and community resiliency in response to flood and drought.
Keywords: Community Vulnerability; Climate Extremes; Flood; Drought; Infrastructure

Title: Use of Novel Composite Coagulants for Arsenic removal from groundwaters—Emphasis on the use of poly ferric sulfate
Authors: Ioannis A. Katsoyiannis 1, *, Athanasia K. Tolkou 1, Nikolaos M. Tzollas 1, Manassis Mitrakas 2, Anastasios I. Zouboulis 1
Affiliations: 1    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece.
2    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece.
Abstract: Arsenic contamination of groundwaters is one of the major human health threats that humanity is facing. Treatment of arsenic usually involves oxidation and then removal by coagulation with iron or aluminium salts or adsorption. This is because conventional treatment methods do not remove efficiently the trivalent arsenic from water. Therefore, in this work, we examined several pre-polymerized coagulants of iron and aluminium for As(V) and As(III) removal under various conditions in order to investigate the efficiency of these materials for removing both species of arsenic without the need for pre-oxidation. From all coagulants tested, including the conventional ferric chloride, only poly ferric sulphate (PFS) was able to remove arsenic(III) to concentrations below 10 μg/L. With a s dose of 5 mg/L of PFS, treatment of water containing 25 μg/L As(V) and As(III) respectively, resulted in water with less than 5 μg/L arsenic, without the need of any additional treatment. Use of conventional coagulants could not achieve similar results.

Title: Review of Novel and Conventional Technologies for the Treatment of Landfill Leachates:
Authors: Vincenzo Torretta*1, Ioannis A. Katsoyiannis2, Athanasia K. Tolkou2, Michela Airoldi1
Affiliations: 1Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, 46 Via G.B. Vico, Varese 21100, Italy
2Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124, Greece
Abstract: This study aims to review the technological innovations applied for the treatment of leachate. The review shows that both biological and physical-chemical treatments are not able when applied in single treatment to achieve the requested quality level for treated leachate, according to the limits established by regulations for the discharge into the sewer system or into surface water. One of the few exceptions can be reverse osmosis, as it is able to remove most of the pollutants reaching almost the highest percentages compared to other single treatments, and because it achieves such results for any type of young, medium or old leachate. In order to respect the current limits fixed by regulations, the construction of depuration systems combining biological chemical-physical treatment methods is considered of utmost importance, because each of them can contribute to depuration in different ways.

Title: Efficiency of iron-based oxy-hydroxides in removing antimony from groundwaters to levels below the drinking water regulation limit
Authors: Papadopoulou, B., Simeonidis, K., Tresintsi, S., Katsoyiannis, I.A., Zouboulis, A.I., Mitrakas, M.*
Affiliation: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece
Abstract: Τhis study evaluates the efficiency of iron-based oxy-hydroxides to remove common antimony from groundwaters at the requirements of drinking water regulation limit. Results obtained by batch adsorption experiments and rapid small-scale column tests indicate that iron oxy-hydroxides designed to maintain a high positively charge density, achieve residual concentration of Sb(III) below 5 μg/L, by providing an adsorption capacity of 3 mg/g. This is more than double compared to similar commercial Fe or binary Fe/Mn adsorbents. Considering the rapid kinetic of the process and the compliance to the leaching test regulations, the developed adsorbents may be promoted as possible materials for water treatment at the household level for application at vulnerable communities.

Title: Development of a hybrid treatment unit comprised of pipe flocculation and microfiltration for reductive precipitation and removal of Cr(VI) from groundwaters
Authors: Katsoyiannis, I.A.1, Stylianou, S.1, Mitrakas, M.2and Zouboulis, A.1,*
Affiliation: 1  Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece.
2   Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
Corresponding author Email: zoubouli@chem.auth.gr
Abstract: Cr(VI) is a very toxic and carcinogenic element, which is widely present in groundwaters, mainly due to geogenic conditions. The limit of Cr(VI) in drinking water is expected to be reduced to 10 μg/L in both USA and the European Union. Cr(VI) removal by conventional methods has been proved inefficient in reducing Cr(VI) levels to below 10 μg/L, unless reduction of Cr(VI) by Fe(II) or other reducing agents is used. In the present study, we investigated the use of a novel treatment method for Cr(VI) removal comprised by Fe(II) dosing, pipe flocculation enhancing Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) and removal of particles by microfiltration. One part of the filtered solids is recirculated into the pipes, where flocculation takes place. This provided additional solid surfaces and enabled the reduction of Cr(VI) with less amount of Fe(II), as in conventional Fe(II) reduction treatment systems. The results showed that water containing 300 μg/L of Cr(VI) could be efficiently treated with 1 mg/L of Fe(II), with a ratio of around 3:1 at pH 7. Final Cr(VI) and total chromium concentrations were below 10 μg/L. Fouling of membrane did not take place even after one year of operation.

Title:Effect of natural organic matter on Cr(VI) removal from groundwaters by Fe(II) reductive precipitation
Authors: Gröhlich A.1, Langer M.1, Mantha Z.2, Tokou A.2, Stylianou S.2, Mitrakas M.3, Zouboulis A.2, Katsoyiannis I.A.2 , Ernst M.1
Affiliations: 1 Technische Universität Hamburg,Wasserressourcen und Wasserversorgung, Am Schwarzenberg-Campus 3, Gebäude E, 21073 Hamburg, Germany.
2 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece.
3 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
Abstract: The use of Fe(II) for the reductive removal of Cr(VI) from groundwaters is well demonstrated. Fe(II) reacts with Cr(VI) and the result is the formation of Fe(III) hydroxides and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Cr(III) is then either precipitated as Cr(III) hydroxides or is adsorbed in iron hydroxides and is removed from water through filtration. However, until to date the role of natural organic matter in the water has rarely been investigated and is not sufficiently understood As a result the required treatment for Cr(VI) from groundwaters in waterworks is a delicate task to be realized, especially if very low concentration (< 10 µg/L) in product waters are envisaged. The present paper will give insides on fundamental mechanisms in Cr(VI) removal under varying pH, dosages of Fe(II) coagulants and content of natural organic matter. Kinetic issues will be matter of investigation as well.

 

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