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Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2169; doi:10.3390/su9122169

The Opportunity Cost of Labor for Valuing Mangrove Restoration in Mahakam Delta, Indonesia

1
Laboratory of Environmental Economics, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan
2
Department of Fisheries Socio-Economics, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Mulawarman University, Samarinda 75119, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract

Worldwide, damage to mangroves is alarming. Restoration is required to recover mangrove ecosystems, and communities’ involvement is a primary factor to reduce the threat to mangroves. Their participation might be interpreted as the appropriate decision concerning conservation and utilization of mangroves. Using a contingent valuation approach, this study assesses mangroves’ values to local communities through their willingness to contribute labor to obtain monetary value. Results showed that the opportunity cost of time was valued at IDR 398.76 thousand (US$29.99) a month or IDR 4.79 million (US$359.90) per year. A total annual benefit of mangrove restoration using the wage rate of time (WRT) is IDR 143 billion (US$10.77 million) per year. Accessing such information is crucial to making the appropriate decisions about conservation of mangroves within the context of developing countries that have poor coastal communities and low incomes. Tobit regression determined that five variables affect willingness to provide labor time and WRT significantly for mangrove restoration. These findings can support decision-makers with the relevant information for assessing a mangrove restoration project. View Full-Text
Keywords: mangrove restoration; contingent valuation method; willingness to contribute labor; developing country; Mahakam Delta mangrove restoration; contingent valuation method; willingness to contribute labor; developing country; Mahakam Delta
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Susilo, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Yabe, M. The Opportunity Cost of Labor for Valuing Mangrove Restoration in Mahakam Delta, Indonesia. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2169.

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