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Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2095; doi:10.3390/su9112095

Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics of Agave Sap (Agave salmiana) after Its Inoculation with Microorganisms Isolated from Agave Sap Concentrate Selected to Enhance Anticancer Activity

1
Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Col. Tecnológico, 64849 Monterrey, N.L., Mexico
2
Departamento de Ingeniería Celular y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Av. Universidad 2001, Col. Chamilpa, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor., Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract

Saponins have been correlated with the reduction of cancer cell growth and the apoptotic effect of agave sap concentrate. Empirical observations of this artisanal Mexican food have shown that fermentation occurs after agave sap is concentrated, but little is known about the microorganisms that survive after cooking, or their effects on saponins and other metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in metabolites found in agave (A. salmiana) sap after its fermentation with microorganisms isolated from agave sap concentrate, and demonstrate its potential use to enhance anticancer activity. Microorganisms were isolated by dilution plating and identified by 16S rRNA analysis. Isolates were used to ferment agave sap, and their corresponding butanolic extracts were compared with those that enhanced the cytotoxic activity on colon (Caco-2) and liver (Hep-G2) cancer cells. Metabolite changes were investigated by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Among 69 isolated microorganisms, the actinomycetes Arthrobacter globiformis and Gordonia sp. were used to analyze the metabolites, along with bioactivity changes. From the 939 ions that were mainly responsible for variation among fermented samples at 48 h, 96 h, and 192 h, four were correlated to anticancer activity. It was shown that magueyoside B, a kammogenin glycoside, was found at higher intensities in the samples fermented with Gordonia sp. that reduced Hep-G2 viability better than controls. These findings showed that microorganisms from agave sap concentrate change agave sap metabolites such as saponins. Butanolic extracts obtained after agave sap fermentation with Arthrobacter globiformis or Gordonia sp. increased the cancer cell growth inhibitory effect on colon or liver cancer cells, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: agave sap; actinomycetes; anticancer activity; saponins; metabolomics agave sap; actinomycetes; anticancer activity; saponins; metabolomics
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Figueroa, L.M.; Santos-Zea, L.; Escalante, A.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, J.A. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics of Agave Sap (Agave salmiana) after Its Inoculation with Microorganisms Isolated from Agave Sap Concentrate Selected to Enhance Anticancer Activity. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2095.

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