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Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2038; doi:10.3390/su9112038

All-Inclusiveness versus Exclusion: Urban Project Development in Latin America and Africa

Centre for Latin American Research and Documentation, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 33, 1018 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Human Geography & Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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This paper scrutinizes current processes of urban fragmentation, segregation, and exclusion that result from the increasing flows of capital in gated communities, walled-off condominiums, and similar exclusivist investment hubs in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. Gated community-like developments are growing and spreading into new areas. Although not all of the walled projects offer all-inclusiveness, they are unanimously based on the pre-selection of specific categories of residents. Moreover, all-inclusive urban developments are taking on new and more encompassing forms, such as ‘gated cities’. Hence, socio-spatial inclusion and exclusion in the urban built environment are continuously transforming under the influence of investment capital (i.e., new urban investment flows and speculation), urbanistic concepts (e.g., different interpretations of safety and crime), and human mobilities. This paper builds on a comparison of empirical cases from Latin America and Africa to develop a qualitative framework of segregation indicators. In Latin America, gated communities have a long history, but exclusionary developments are changing in form, as well as in implications. In Africa, research on gated communities has particularly focused on South Africa (where they have a longer history), but exclusionary developments are spreading rapidly across the continent, and will influence future real estate development and land markets. Based on such complementary experiences, this paper grapples with the question of how these new all-inclusive developments influence the possibilities of achieving inclusive and sustainable urban transitions, as advocated in Sustainable Development Goal 11 (SDG11) and the New Urban Agenda. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban segregation; urban fragmentation; gated communities; all-inclusiveness; Latin America; Africa; new cities; exclusion urban segregation; urban fragmentation; gated communities; all-inclusiveness; Latin America; Africa; new cities; exclusion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Klaufus, C.; van Lindert, P.; van Noorloos, F.; Steel, G. All-Inclusiveness versus Exclusion: Urban Project Development in Latin America and Africa. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2038.

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