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Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2020; doi:10.3390/su9112020

Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludge during Land Application Process in China: A Review

Key Laboratory of Cleaner Production and Industrial Wastes Recycling and Resourcization in Universities of Shandong, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Waste Management)
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The safe disposal of sewage sludge during the process of municipal wastewater treatment has become one of the major concerns of increased production. Land application was thought of as a more economical method for sewage sludge disposal than landfill and incineration. However, the presence of heavy metals in sewage sludge restricted the use of land application. The environmental risk of heavy metals was dependent on their contents, chemical speciations, and soil characteristics. Composting and chemical immobilization were the commonly used methods to immobilize the heavy metals in sewage sludge. The immobilization mechanism and speciation transformation of heavy metals during the composting process were presented. Aluminosilicate, phosphorus-bearing materials, basic compounds, and sulfides were reviewed as the commonly used chemical immobilizing agents. The problems that occur during the immobilization process were also discussed. The combination of different methods and the modification of chemical immobilizing agents both improved the fixation effect on heavy metals. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; sewage sludge; land application; composting; chemical immobilization heavy metals; sewage sludge; land application; composting; chemical immobilization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, X.; Wang, X.-Q.; Wang, D.-F. Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludge during Land Application Process in China: A Review. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2020.

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