Next Article in Journal
Urban Growth Control DSS Techniques for De-Sprinkling Process in Italy
Next Article in Special Issue
Environmental Indicators for the Evaluation of Wood Products in Consideration of Site-Dependent Aspects: A Review and Integrated Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Task Characteristics and Work Engagement: Exploring Effects of Role Ambiguity and ICT Presenteeism
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Integrated Assessment Framework of Offshore Wind Power Projects Applying Equator Principles and Social Life Cycle Assessment
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1854; doi:10.3390/su9101854

Environmental Impact and Nutritional Improvement of Elevated CO2 Treatment: A Case Study of Spinach Production

Department of Industrial Administration, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [946 KB, uploaded 18 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

The agriculture sector is known to be the one of the major contributors to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, global climate changes have affected the agriculture sector. In order to strengthen the sustainable development of agriculture, it is important to promote environmentally friendly farming and simultaneously increase the economic value. To improve the productivity of agriculture, technical advancements have occurred. Among those, we have focused on CO2 treatment in cultivation. We aimed to clarify the effectiveness of the elevated CO2 treatment of spinach based on GHG emission and the economic value using the eco-efficiency score. We assumed that nutrition could represent the value of the vegetable. We measured weights, vitamin C, and CO2 emissions of elevated CO2 treatment and conventional production. We used life cycle assessment (LCA) to estimate CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions of a 100-g bouquet of spinach were estimated from agricultural inputs, farming, transport, and distribution center processes at a model spinach farm in Japan. CO2 emission of elevated CO2 treatment was 29.0 g-CO2, and was 49.0 g-CO2 for conventional production. The net weight of a bouquet of elevated CO2-treated spinach was 1.69-fold greater than that of conventional production. Vitamin C per 100 g spinach produced via elevated CO2 treatment was 15.1 mg, and that of conventional production was 13.5 mg on average. Finally, based on the above results, we assessed the eco-efficiency scores of the elevated CO2 treatment and conventional production of spinach, enabling integration of the nutritional value and the environmental impact. The score showed that elevated CO2 treatment (0.76) was 2.9-fold more efficient than conventional production (0.26). This study suggested that elevated CO2 treatment could enhance growth and nutritional value of spinach, and further contribute to CO2 reduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: LCA; elevated CO2 treatment; spinach; vitamin C; eco-efficiency LCA; elevated CO2 treatment; spinach; vitamin C; eco-efficiency
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Seo, Y.; Ide, K.; Kitahata, N.; Kuchitsu, K.; Dowaki, K. Environmental Impact and Nutritional Improvement of Elevated CO2 Treatment: A Case Study of Spinach Production. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1854.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top