Next Article in Journal
China’s New Urban Space Regulation Policies: A Study of Urban Development Boundary Delineations
Previous Article in Journal
Sustainability Measures of Urban Public Transport in Cities: A World Review and Focus on the Asia/Middle East Region
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 44; doi:10.3390/su9010044

Characteristics of Suspended Sediment Loadings under Asian Summer Monsoon Climate Using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Andong National University, Andong 760748, Korea
2
Department of Rural Construction Engineering, Kongju National University, Yesan 32439, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tan Yigitcanlar
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1768 KB, uploaded 28 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

The extreme variation in the amount of annual precipitation and rainfall during single events is typical of the East Asian monsoon climate and may greatly influence the characteristics of the suspended sediment load. The turbidity in Lake Imha which is the eighth largest multipurpose dam in Korea has been the cause of major water quality problems for use as drinking water. The turbidity rose to 882 NTU, and it remained over 30 NTU continuously for 170 days during 2002, as the result of significant amounts of soil erosion from the watershed during the Asian monsoon typhoon. In this study, characteristics of suspended sediment loadings under the Asian summer monsoon climate was investigated by comparing the variation of yearly suspended sediment loads and the ratio of maximum suspended sediment loads in a single event to yearly suspended sediment load from Lake Imha watershed using the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF). The model calibration is performed according to the 2009–2010 events, and simulation results characterized suspended sediment loadings under the Asian summer monsoon climate for 2001–2010. Water sampling and flow rate measurements were performed every 4–6 h, and calibration was performed using hourly simulated sediment loads. The calibration results demonstrated good agreement with the observed data. The characteristics of suspended sediment loadings under the Asian summer monsoon climate are a high variance of the yearly suspended sediment load and a significant of amount of suspended sediment load during a single event influenced by the typhoon intensity. The maximum yearly suspended sediment load was 10 times higher than the minimum yearly value. About half of the yearly suspended sediment load was loaded with a single event under the Asian summer monsoon climate and the ratio of suspended sediment loads by a single event to total yearly loads ranged from 29% to 90%. Structural best management practices (BMPs) to trap suspended sediment in stormwater such as stormwater ponds or wetlands rely on much more storage volume or area and non-structural BMPs to minimize soil erosion by source control such as mulching or revegetation in disturbed areas, which are important BMPs, especially in the Asian summer monsoon region. View Full-Text
Keywords: HSPF; calibration; suspended sediment yield; Lake Imha; East Asia monsoon climate HSPF; calibration; suspended sediment yield; Lake Imha; East Asia monsoon climate
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jeon, J.-H.; Park, C.-G.; Choi, D.; Kim, T. Characteristics of Suspended Sediment Loadings under Asian Summer Monsoon Climate Using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN. Sustainability 2017, 9, 44.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top