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Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 149; doi:10.3390/su9010149

Characterisation of Nature-Based Solutions for the Built Environment

1
Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ, UK
2
Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3JG, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Davide Geneletti
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 7 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions for Urban Challenges)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1778 KB, uploaded 20 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Nature has provided humankind with food, fuel, and shelter throughout evolutionary history. However, in contemporary cities, many natural landscapes have become degraded and replaced with impermeable hard surfaces (e.g., roads, paving, car parks and buildings). The reversal of this trend is dynamic, complex and still in its infancy. There are many facets of urban greening initiatives involving multiple benefits, sensitivities and limitations. The aim of this paper is to develop a characterisation method of nature based solutions for designing and retrofitting in the built environment, and to facilitate knowledge transfer between disciplines and for design optimisation. Based on a review of the literature across disciplines, key characteristics could be organised into four groups: policy and community initiatives, multiple benefits assessment, topology, and design options. Challenges and opportunities for developing a characterisation framework to improve the use of nature based solutions in the built environment are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: green roofs; green walls; urban green infrastructure; built environment; urban retrofitting; design optimisation; ecosystem services; nature-based solutions; climate; health; well-being green roofs; green walls; urban green infrastructure; built environment; urban retrofitting; design optimisation; ecosystem services; nature-based solutions; climate; health; well-being
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Xing, Y.; Jones, P.; Donnison, I. Characterisation of Nature-Based Solutions for the Built Environment. Sustainability 2017, 9, 149.

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