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Sustainability 2016, 8(6), 557; doi:10.3390/su8060557

A New Method to Plan the Capacity and Location of Battery Swapping Station for Electric Vehicle Considering Demand Side Management

State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
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Academic Editor: Tan Yigitcanlar
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 10 June 2016 / Accepted: 12 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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Abstract

Compared to electric vehicle (EV) charging mode, battery swapping mode can realize concentrated and orderly charging. Therefore battery swapping stations (BSS) can participate in the demand side management (DSM) as an integrated form. In this context, a new method to plan the capacity and location of BSS for EV, considering DSM, is proposed in this paper. Firstly, based on the original charging power of BSS with the rule of “First-In First-Out”, a bi-level optimal configuration model of BSS, in which net profit of BSS is maximized in the upper model and operating cost of Distribution Company is minimized in the lower model, is developed to decide the rated power, number of batteries, contract pricing and dispatched power of BSS for DSM. Then, the optimal locating model of BSS with the objective of minimizing network loss is built. A mesh adaptive direct search algorithm with YALMIP toolbox is applied to optimize the bi-level model. Simulation calculation was carried on IEEE-33 nodes distribution system and the results show that participating in DSM can improve the economic benefits of both BSS and distribution network and promote the consumption of distributed generation, verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery swapping station; demand side management; contract pricing; bi-level optimization; distribution company battery swapping station; demand side management; contract pricing; bi-level optimization; distribution company
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, W.; Niu, S.; Xu, H.; Li, X. A New Method to Plan the Capacity and Location of Battery Swapping Station for Electric Vehicle Considering Demand Side Management. Sustainability 2016, 8, 557.

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