Next Article in Journal
Market Opportunities for Animal-Friendly Milk in Different Consumer Segments
Previous Article in Journal
Wave Energy Assessment and Performance Estimation of State of the Art Wave Energy Converters in Italian Hotspots
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1299; doi:10.3390/su8121299

Bidirectional Incentive Model for Bicycle Redistribution of a Bicycle Sharing System during Rush Hour

Department of Management Science and Engineering, Business School of Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yongrok Choi
Received: 17 August 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1286 KB, uploaded 10 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Redistribution is an important part of operational activities in a bicycle sharing system (BSS). This paper proposes that there are two types of users in a BSS: leisure travelers and commuters. The operators and the government are adopting the bidirectional incentive model (BIM) to improve their service level of redistribution. That is, the BIM stimulates leisure travelers to actively respond to bicycle resetting needs of the system; on the other hand, it guides commuters by encouraging them to avoid travelling in peak periods. This is beneficial to achieve the goals of reducing the scheduling pressure on bicycles during rush hour, and even to realize the self-resetting of the BSS. In this paper, we explore three scenarios for implementing BIM through cooperation between the operator and the government. By exploiting Stackelberg games in all models, we illustrate the quantity of users in three different travel behaviors, and surplus value of these users respectively. We also consider the trend of the profit of the operator and the government when some changes of parameters are made. The numerical analysis and case discussion find that the strategy of the operator implementing BIM with a subsidy is the best method for developed regions. In a developing region, the strategy of implementing the BIM with a direct government subsidy to users is the best choice in a small or tourist city. In these cities, the proportion of leisure travelers is always larger than 50%, resulting in a significant incentive effect. The strategy of the operator implementing BIM without a subsidy is the best choice for the large and medium-sized city. View Full-Text
Keywords: bicycle sharing system; incentive model; Stackelberg game; subsidy bicycle sharing system; incentive model; Stackelberg game; subsidy
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, L.; Shan, M. Bidirectional Incentive Model for Bicycle Redistribution of a Bicycle Sharing System during Rush Hour. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1299.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top