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Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 984; doi:10.3390/su8100984

Technical Performance and Environmental Effects of the Treated Effluent of Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Shenzhen Bay Catchment, China

1
Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC) of Shenzhen, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China
2
Shenzhen Urban Planning and Land Resource Research Center, Shenzhen 518034, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Torretta
Received: 24 July 2016 / Revised: 18 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Abstract

Technical performance and effluent environmental impact of seven wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) in the Shenzhen Bay Catchment, China were examined. All WWTPs had good performance in the removal of chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, and suspended solids, while total nitrogen and total phosphorus removal should be enhanced to improve the comprehensive pollutants removal loading rate. The effluent eutrophication effect from WWTPs was in the range of 0.0028–0.0092 kg/m3, and nitrate was the major contributor. The effluent greenhouse gas emission of WWTP1–7 was in the range of 3.23 × 10−5–8.70 × 10−5 kg·CO2/m3. The effluent eutrophication effects and greenhouse gas emission of WWTPs could be reduced by decreasing the effluent total nitrogen concentration. The ecological risk and healthy risk of heavy metals were low. Among examined heavy metals, lead contributed the most to the ecological risk while arsenic contributed most to the human health risk. The human health risk of microbial pollutants of WWTPs1–7 was in the range of 0.0024–0.0042 DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years). Finally, an ecosystem-based WWTP framework was proposed to systematically include all environmental effects so as to support the sustainable development of WWTPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater treatment plant; technical performance; environmental impacts; ecological risk; human health risk wastewater treatment plant; technical performance; environmental impacts; ecological risk; human health risk
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, B.; Wang, D.; Li, M.; Wei, J.; Wu, G. Technical Performance and Environmental Effects of the Treated Effluent of Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Shenzhen Bay Catchment, China. Sustainability 2016, 8, 984.

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