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Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 9787-9808; doi:10.3390/su7089787

The Toledo Drinking Water Advisory: Suggested Application of the Water Safety Planning Approach

1
Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada
2
Engineering and Public Policy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Torretta
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 15 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 July 2015 / Published: 23 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Resources)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1781 KB, uploaded 27 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

On 2 August 2014 the city of Toledo, in Ohio USA issued a “do not drink” water advisory and declared a state of emergency. This was as a result of elevated levels of the toxin microcystin in the final treated water, a dangerous toxin produced by the algae cyanobacteria. The Toledo water crisis is a key focusing event that can advance dialogue on eutrophication governance in the context of public health. This paper examines the Toledo water ban with the aim of determining whether this crisis could have been averted. Further, we explore how this event can be used to stimulate action on eutrophication governance, to motivate action to protect water at its source. We use the World Health Organization’s Water Safety Planning Methodology to show that the crisis could have been averted with some simple risk management actions. We also show that a water safety planning approach could lead to well developed operational and maintenance planning resulting in a higher probability of safe drinking water. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water advisory; Toledo water; water safety planning; Great Lakes; eutrophication; cyanobacteria drinking water advisory; Toledo water; water safety planning; Great Lakes; eutrophication; cyanobacteria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jetoo, S.; Grover, V.I.; Krantzberg, G. The Toledo Drinking Water Advisory: Suggested Application of the Water Safety Planning Approach. Sustainability 2015, 7, 9787-9808.

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