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Sustainability 2014, 6(11), 7807-7832; doi:10.3390/su6117807

Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis

1
Department of Business Administration, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, Edificio FES, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
2
Department of Statistics, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, Alfonso X el Sabio S/N, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 6 November 2014
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Abstract

The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD) of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental sustainability; environmental performance; countries worldwide; socioeconomic factors; institutional factors; biplot environmental sustainability; environmental performance; countries worldwide; socioeconomic factors; institutional factors; biplot
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gallego-Alvarez, I.; Vicente-Galindo, M.P.; Galindo-Villardón, M.P.; Rodríguez-Rosa, M. Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis. Sustainability 2014, 6, 7807-7832.

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