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Sustainability 2013, 5(7), 3116-3128; doi:10.3390/su5073116
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Sustainability Challenges from Climate Change and Air Conditioning Use in Urban Areas

1,*  and 2,3
1 Thermal Environment Laboratory, Institution of Design Sciences, Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, Sölvegatan 26, Lund 221 00, Sweden 2 Climate Change and Global Health Group, Umea Centre for Global Health Research, Umea University, Umea 90187, Sweden 3 National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 0200, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2013 / Revised: 5 July 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Cities)
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Abstract

Global climate change increases heat loads in urban areas causing health and productivity risks for millions of people. Inhabitants in tropical and subtropical urban areas are at especial risk due to high population density, already high temperatures, and temperature increases due to climate change. Air conditioning is growing rapidly, especially in South and South-East Asia due to income growth and the need to protect from high heat exposures. Studies have linked increased total hourly electricity use to outdoor temperatures and humidity; modeled future predictions when facing additional heat due to climate change, related air conditioning with increased street level heat and estimated future air conditioning use in major urban areas. However, global and localized studies linking climate variables with air conditioning alone are lacking. More research and detailed data is needed looking at the effects of increasing air conditioning use, electricity consumption, climate change and interactions with the urban heat island effect. Climate change mitigation, for example using renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic electricity generation, to power air conditioning, and other sustainable methods to reduce heat exposure are needed to make future urban areas more climate resilient.
Keywords: climate change; air conditioning; urban heat island; urban health; resilience climate change; air conditioning; urban heat island; urban health; resilience
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lundgren, K.; Kjellstrom, T. Sustainability Challenges from Climate Change and Air Conditioning Use in Urban Areas. Sustainability 2013, 5, 3116-3128.

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