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Strategies and Policies for the Bioeconomy and Bio-Based Economy: An Analysis of Official National Approaches
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 21060, Stockholm SE-10031, Sweden
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 53021, Göteborg SE-40014, Sweden
International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE), Lund University, Box 196, Lund SE-22100, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2013; in revised form: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 20 June 2013
Abstract: The onset of formulating strategies and policies regarding the bioeconomy can be, at least partly, attributed to the publication of the policy agenda on the bioeconomy by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2009. The aim of this study is to analyze selected national strategies and policies regarding the development of a bioeconomy and to clarify similarities and differences between them. The article presents a comparative overview of the strategies and policies for developing a bioeconomy in the EU, USA, Canada, Sweden, Finland, Germany and Australia. The documents analyzed are in most cases national strategies or policies. The structures and aims of these documents vary and the analysis is further complicated by the terms “bioeconomy” and “bio-based economy” having as yet no clear definition, a point which is discussed in some depth in this article. In the documents analyzed, strategies and policies on how to promote the bioeconomy are often presented based on the prerequisites of the country in focus; the need for increased research, development and demonstrations in the area is thus particularly stressed. The main emphasis is often to enhance the economy of a nation and provide new employment and business possibilities, whereas the aspects of sustainability and resource availability are addressed only to a limited extent in many of the documents.
Keywords: bioeconomy; bio-based economy; strategy; policy
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Staffas, L.; Gustavsson, M.; McCormick, K. Strategies and Policies for the Bioeconomy and Bio-Based Economy: An Analysis of Official National Approaches. Sustainability 2013, 5, 2751-2769.
Staffas L, Gustavsson M, McCormick K. Strategies and Policies for the Bioeconomy and Bio-Based Economy: An Analysis of Official National Approaches. Sustainability. 2013; 5(6):2751-2769.
Staffas, Louise; Gustavsson, Mathias; McCormick, Kes. 2013. "Strategies and Policies for the Bioeconomy and Bio-Based Economy: An Analysis of Official National Approaches." Sustainability 5, no. 6: 2751-2769.