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Sustainability 2013, 5(3), 1177-1187; doi:10.3390/su5031177
Article

Bird Pollinator Visitation is Equivalent in Island and Plantation Planting Designs in Tropical Forest Restoration Sites

1,2,*  and 3
Received: 20 January 2013; in revised form: 2 February 2013 / Accepted: 13 February 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Ecosystem Restoration)
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Abstract: Active restoration is one strategy to reverse tropical forest loss. Given the dynamic nature of climates, human populations, and other ecosystem components, the past practice of using historical reference sites as restoration targets is unlikely to result in self-sustaining ecosystems. Restoring sustainable ecological processes like pollination is a more feasible goal. We investigated how flower cover, planting design, and landscape forest cover influenced bird pollinator visits to Inga edulis trees in young restoration sites in Costa Rica. I. edulis trees were located in island plantings, where seedlings had been planted in patches, or in plantation plantings, where seedlings were planted to cover the restoration area. Sites were located in landscapes with scant (10–21%) or moderate (35–76%) forest cover. Trees with greater flower cover received more visits from pollinating birds; neither planting design nor landscape forest cover influenced the number of pollinator visits. Resident hummingbirds and a migratory bird species were the most frequent bird pollinators. Pollination in the early years following planting may not be as affected by details of restoration design as other ecological processes like seed dispersal. Future work to assess the quality of various pollinator species will be important in assessing this idea.
Keywords: birds; Costa Rica; ecosystem service; hummingbird; Neotropical migrant; pollination birds; Costa Rica; ecosystem service; hummingbird; Neotropical migrant; pollination
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lindell, C.A.; Thurston, G.M. Bird Pollinator Visitation is Equivalent in Island and Plantation Planting Designs in Tropical Forest Restoration Sites. Sustainability 2013, 5, 1177-1187.

AMA Style

Lindell CA, Thurston GM. Bird Pollinator Visitation is Equivalent in Island and Plantation Planting Designs in Tropical Forest Restoration Sites. Sustainability. 2013; 5(3):1177-1187.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lindell, Catherine A.; Thurston, Ginger M. 2013. "Bird Pollinator Visitation is Equivalent in Island and Plantation Planting Designs in Tropical Forest Restoration Sites." Sustainability 5, no. 3: 1177-1187.


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