Sustainability 2012, 4(5), 958-994; doi:10.3390/su4050958

Exploring Future Impacts of Environmental Constraints on Human Development

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Received: 20 February 2012; in revised form: 17 March 2012 / Accepted: 26 April 2012 / Published: 10 May 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Environmental constraints have always had, and will always have, important consequences for human development. They have sometimes contributed to, or even caused, the reversal of such development. The possibility that such constraints, including climate change, will grow significantly this century raises the concern that the very significant advances in human development across most of the world in recent decades will slow or even reverse. We use the International Futures (IFs) integrated forecasting system to explore three scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Environmental Challenge scenario, and an Environmental Disaster scenario. Our purpose is to consider the impact of different aspects and levels of environmental constraint on the course of future human development. Using the Human Development Index (HDI) and its separate components as our key measures of development, we find that environmental constraints could indeed greatly slow progress and even, in disastrous conditions, begin to reverse it. Least developed countries are most vulnerable in relative terms, while middle-income countries can suffer the greatest absolute impact of constraints, and more developed countries are most resilient. Education’s advance is the aspect of development tapped by the HDI that is most likely to continue even in the face of tightening environmental constraints, and that is one reason why human development shows great momentum even in the face of environmental challenges.
Keywords: human development; international futures; environmental constraints; climate change; educational advance; scenarios
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hughes, B.B.; Irfan, M.T.; Moyer, J.D.; Rothman, D.S.; Solórzano, J.R. Exploring Future Impacts of Environmental Constraints on Human Development. Sustainability 2012, 4, 958-994.

AMA Style

Hughes BB, Irfan MT, Moyer JD, Rothman DS, Solórzano JR. Exploring Future Impacts of Environmental Constraints on Human Development. Sustainability. 2012; 4(5):958-994.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hughes, Barry B.; Irfan, Mohammod T.; Moyer, Jonathan D.; Rothman, Dale S.; Solórzano, José R. 2012. "Exploring Future Impacts of Environmental Constraints on Human Development." Sustainability 4, no. 5: 958-994.

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