Sustainability 2012, 4(12), 3248-3259; doi:10.3390/su4123248
Communication

General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events

1,* email, 2email, 3email, 4email, 5email, 4,6email, 4,6email, 4,6email, 7email, 8email, 9email, 3email, 3email, 6email, 10email, 11email, 12email, 13email, 14email, 4,15email, 16email and 6,17email
Received: 5 October 2012; Accepted: 14 November 2012 / Published: 28 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation or Extinction)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require a more broad-spectrum type of resilience. General resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt or transform in response to unfamiliar, unexpected and extreme shocks. Conditions that enable general resilience include diversity, modularity, openness, reserves, feedbacks, nestedness, monitoring, leadership, and trust. Processes for building general resilience are an emerging and crucially important area of research.
Keywords: extreme events; general resilience; polycentric governance; resilience; social-ecological system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carpenter, S.R.; Arrow, K.J.; Barrett, S.; Biggs, R.; Brock, W.A.; Crépin, A.-S.; Engström, G.; Folke, C.; Hughes, T.P.; Kautsky, N.; Li, C.-Z.; McCarney, G.; Meng, K.; Mäler, K.-G.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Shogren, J.; Sterner, T.; Vincent, J.R.; Walker, B.; Xepapadeas, A.; Zeeuw, A.D. General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events. Sustainability 2012, 4, 3248-3259.

AMA Style

Carpenter SR, Arrow KJ, Barrett S, Biggs R, Brock WA, Crépin A-S, Engström G, Folke C, Hughes TP, Kautsky N, Li C-Z, McCarney G, Meng K, Mäler K-G, Polasky S, Scheffer M, Shogren J, Sterner T, Vincent JR, Walker B, Xepapadeas A, Zeeuw AD. General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events. Sustainability. 2012; 4(12):3248-3259.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carpenter, Stephen R.; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Biggs, Reinette; Brock, William A.; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Engström, Gustav; Folke, Carl; Hughes, Terry P.; Kautsky, Nils; Li, Chuan-Zhong; McCarney, Geoffrey; Meng, Kyle; Mäler, Karl-Göran; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Shogren, Jason; Sterner, Thomas; Vincent, Jeffrey R.; Walker, Brian; Xepapadeas, Anastasios; Zeeuw, Aart D. 2012. "General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events." Sustainability 4, no. 12: 3248-3259.

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