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General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events
Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
Department of Economics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
School of International and Public Affairs/The Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box 50005, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden
Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia
Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Box 513, 751-20 Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, 1994 Buford Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Department of Economics and Finance, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY 10010, USA
Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Sustainable Ecosystems, GPO Box 284, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
Athens University of Economics and Business, 76 Patission Street, 104 34 Athens, Greece
Department of Economics and Center, Tilburg University, PO Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 October 2012; Accepted: 14 November 2012 / Published: 28 November 2012
Abstract: Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require a more broad-spectrum type of resilience. General resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt or transform in response to unfamiliar, unexpected and extreme shocks. Conditions that enable general resilience include diversity, modularity, openness, reserves, feedbacks, nestedness, monitoring, leadership, and trust. Processes for building general resilience are an emerging and crucially important area of research.
Keywords: extreme events; general resilience; polycentric governance; resilience; social-ecological system
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Carpenter, S.R.; Arrow, K.J.; Barrett, S.; Biggs, R.; Brock, W.A.; Crépin, A.-S.; Engström, G.; Folke, C.; Hughes, T.P.; Kautsky, N.; Li, C.-Z.; McCarney, G.; Meng, K.; Mäler, K.-G.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Shogren, J.; Sterner, T.; Vincent, J.R.; Walker, B.; Xepapadeas, A.; Zeeuw, A.D. General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events. Sustainability 2012, 4, 3248-3259.
Carpenter SR, Arrow KJ, Barrett S, Biggs R, Brock WA, Crépin A-S, Engström G, Folke C, Hughes TP, Kautsky N, Li C-Z, McCarney G, Meng K, Mäler K-G, Polasky S, Scheffer M, Shogren J, Sterner T, Vincent JR, Walker B, Xepapadeas A, Zeeuw AD. General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events. Sustainability. 2012; 4(12):3248-3259.
Carpenter, Stephen R.; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Biggs, Reinette; Brock, William A.; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Engström, Gustav; Folke, Carl; Hughes, Terry P.; Kautsky, Nils; Li, Chuan-Zhong; McCarney, Geoffrey; Meng, Kyle; Mäler, Karl-Göran; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Shogren, Jason; Sterner, Thomas; Vincent, Jeffrey R.; Walker, Brian; Xepapadeas, Anastasios; Zeeuw, Aart D. 2012. "General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events." Sustainability 4, no. 12: 3248-3259.