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The Influence of Nutrients and Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions on the Ecological Footprint of Products
Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Department of Environmental Science, School of Environmental & Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2010; in revised form: 12 March 2010 / Accepted: 29 March 2010 / Published: 7 April 2010
Abstract: The ecological footprint (EF) commonly neglects the influence of other stressors than land use and CO2 emissions on the land area required for human activities. This study analyzes the relevancy of including nutrients and non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the EF assessment of products. The analysis was based on environmental information for 1,925 goods and services. Our findings suggest that within specific product categories, i.e., waste treatment processes, bio-based energy, agricultural products and chemicals, adding non-CO2 greenhouse gases and nutrient emissions can have a dominant influence on the EF results.
Keywords: ecological footprint; non-CO2 greenhouse gases; nutrient emissions; products
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hanafiah, M.M.; Huijbregts, M.A.; Hendriks, A.J. The Influence of Nutrients and Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions on the Ecological Footprint of Products. Sustainability 2010, 2, 963-979.
Hanafiah MM, Huijbregts MA, Hendriks AJ. The Influence of Nutrients and Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions on the Ecological Footprint of Products. Sustainability. 2010; 2(4):963-979.
Hanafiah, Marlia M.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan. 2010. "The Influence of Nutrients and Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions on the Ecological Footprint of Products." Sustainability 2, no. 4: 963-979.