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Sustainability 2010, 2(1), 252-265; doi:10.3390/su2010252
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A Systems Dynamics Approach to Explore Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Link in the City of Accra, Ghana

1,* , 2
 and 1
Received: 4 December 2009; Accepted: 7 January 2010 / Published: 13 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Pollution)
Download PDF [187 KB, uploaded 14 January 2010]
Abstract: Economic development and urbanization poses myriad challenges to transportation systems in relation to negative externalities such as traffic congestion and environmental health risks. Accra, the capital of Ghana, faces mounting urban planning problems, for example traffic congestion, air pollution, traffic safety, and land use planning, among others. The paper aims to provide a system dynamics perspective of the problems. Most of the drivers and cause-effect relationships of traffic congestion and its attendant air pollution are investigated and analyzed using causal loop diagrams. The paper further suggests mechanisms by which the negative externalities associated with road transport in the city of Accra can be addressed.
Keywords: traffic congestion; atmospheric pollution; policy; system dynamics; urban planning; Ghana traffic congestion; atmospheric pollution; policy; system dynamics; urban planning; Ghana
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Armah, F.A.; Yawson, D.O.; Pappoe, A.A.N.M. A Systems Dynamics Approach to Explore Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Link in the City of Accra, Ghana. Sustainability 2010, 2, 252-265.

AMA Style

Armah FA, Yawson DO, Pappoe AANM. A Systems Dynamics Approach to Explore Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Link in the City of Accra, Ghana. Sustainability. 2010; 2(1):252-265.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Armah, Frederick A.; Yawson, David O.; Pappoe, Alex A. N. M. 2010. "A Systems Dynamics Approach to Explore Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Link in the City of Accra, Ghana." Sustainability 2, no. 1: 252-265.


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