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Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010280

Sustainability Index Evaluation of the Rainwater Harvesting System in Six US Urban Cities

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrology, Water Quality and Ecology)
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Abstract

This study investigated the sustainability of the rainwater harvesting system (RWHS) by analyzing six urban city sites with different rainfall statistics in the United States. We developed a new RWHS performance model by modifying a spreadsheet-based storage, treatment, and overflow runoff model (SS STORM) and verified its performance by comparing with another analytical RWHS model. The sustainability index (SI) evaluation method was used for a reservoir system and applied to the RWHS, employing modified resilience and vulnerability evaluation methods due to the different characteristics of a reservoir and the RWHS. The performance of modified SS STORM is very similar to that of the analytical method, except in Los Angeles, which is characterized by long inter-event times and low rainfall event depths due to low annual rainfall. The sustainability indices were successfully evaluated depending on both RWHS size and water demand and vary over a wide range as annual rainfall increases. This study proposes a new RWHS performance model and sustainability index evaluation method. Further study should confirm the proposed approach in regions with widely different rainfall characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: analytical method; modified SS STORM; reliability; resilience; sustainability; vulnerability analytical method; modified SS STORM; reliability; resilience; sustainability; vulnerability
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Park, D.; Um, M.-J. Sustainability Index Evaluation of the Rainwater Harvesting System in Six US Urban Cities. Sustainability 2018, 10, 280.

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