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Pharmaceutics 2016, 8(4), 36; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics8040036

Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes

1
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
2
Jurox Pty Ltd., Rutherford 2320, NSW, Australia
3
Pharmacy, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001, Tasmania, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Natasa Skalko-Basnet
Received: 28 May 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liposome Technologies 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1752 KB, uploaded 21 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity, reproducible for various in vivo applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: extrusion; pro-liposomes; liposomes; particle size; membrane filter extrusion; pro-liposomes; liposomes; particle size; membrane filter
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ong, S.G.M.; Chitneni, M.; Lee, K.S.; Ming, L.C.; Yuen, K.H. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes. Pharmaceutics 2016, 8, 36.

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