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Pharmaceutics 2014, 6(1), 52-77; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics6010052

Overcoming the Cutaneous Barrier with Microemulsions

1 Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508, SP, Brazil 2 Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY 12208, USA 
Received: 16 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Transdermal Drug Delivery)
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Microemulsions are fluid and isotropic formulations that have been widely studied as delivery systems for a variety of routes, including the skin. In spite of what the name suggests, microemulsions are nanocarriers, and their use as topical delivery systems derives from their multiple advantages compared to other dermatological formulations, such as ease of preparation, thermodynamic stability and penetration-enhancing properties. Composition, charge and internal structure have been reported as determinant factors for the modulation of drug release and cutaneous and transdermal transport. This manuscript aims at reviewing how these and other characteristics affect delivery and make microemulsions appealing for topical and transdermal administration, as well as how they can be modulated during the formulation design to improve the potential and efficacy of the final system.
Keywords: skin; microemulsion; transdermal delivery; cutaneous delivery; internal structure; composition skin; microemulsion; transdermal delivery; cutaneous delivery; internal structure; composition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Lopes, L.B. Overcoming the Cutaneous Barrier with Microemulsions. Pharmaceutics 2014, 6, 52-77.

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