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Rapid Detection and Identification of Overdose Drugs in Saliva by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Using Fused Gold Colloids
Real-Time Analyzers, Inc., Middletown, CT 06457, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2011; in revised form: 1 July 2011 / Accepted: 11 July 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
Abstract: The number of drug-related emergency room visits in the United States doubled from 2004 to 2009 to 4.6 million. Consequently there is a critical need to rapidly identify the offending drug(s), so that the appropriate medical care can be administered. In an effort to meet this need we have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect and identify numerous drugs in saliva at ng/mL concentrations within 10 minutes. Identification is provided by matching measured spectra to a SERS library comprised of over 150 different drugs, each of which possess a unique spectrum. Trace detection is provided by fused gold colloids trapped within a porous glass matrix that generate SERS. Speed is provided by a syringe-driven sample system that uses a solid-phase extraction capillary combined with a SERS-active capillary in series. Spectral collection is provided by a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe successful measurement of representative illicit, prescribed, and over-the-counter drugs by SERS, and 50 ng/mL cocaine in saliva as part of a focused study.
Keywords: drug analysis; illicit drugs; drug overdose; SERS; Raman spectroscopy; emergency room
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Farquharson, S.; Shende, C.; Sengupta, A.; Huang, H.; Inscore, F. Rapid Detection and Identification of Overdose Drugs in Saliva by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Using Fused Gold Colloids. Pharmaceutics 2011, 3, 425-439.
Farquharson S, Shende C, Sengupta A, Huang H, Inscore F. Rapid Detection and Identification of Overdose Drugs in Saliva by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Using Fused Gold Colloids. Pharmaceutics. 2011; 3(3):425-439.
Farquharson, Stuart; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Huang, Hermes; Inscore, Frank. 2011. "Rapid Detection and Identification of Overdose Drugs in Saliva by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Using Fused Gold Colloids." Pharmaceutics 3, no. 3: 425-439.