Pharmaceutics 2011, 3(3), 425-439; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics3030425
Article

Rapid Detection and Identification of Overdose Drugs in Saliva by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Using Fused Gold Colloids

Received: 5 May 2011; in revised form: 1 July 2011 / Accepted: 11 July 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Drug Carrier Systems)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The number of drug-related emergency room visits in the United States doubled from 2004 to 2009 to 4.6 million. Consequently there is a critical need to rapidly identify the offending drug(s), so that the appropriate medical care can be administered. In an effort to meet this need we have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect and identify numerous drugs in saliva at ng/mL concentrations within 10 minutes. Identification is provided by matching measured spectra to a SERS library comprised of over 150 different drugs, each of which possess a unique spectrum. Trace detection is provided by fused gold colloids trapped within a porous glass matrix that generate SERS. Speed is provided by a syringe-driven sample system that uses a solid-phase extraction capillary combined with a SERS-active capillary in series. Spectral collection is provided by a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe successful measurement of representative illicit, prescribed, and over-the-counter drugs by SERS, and 50 ng/mL cocaine in saliva as part of a focused study.
Keywords: drug analysis; illicit drugs; drug overdose; SERS; Raman spectroscopy; emergency room
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MDPI and ACS Style

Farquharson, S.; Shende, C.; Sengupta, A.; Huang, H.; Inscore, F. Rapid Detection and Identification of Overdose Drugs in Saliva by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Using Fused Gold Colloids. Pharmaceutics 2011, 3, 425-439.

AMA Style

Farquharson S, Shende C, Sengupta A, Huang H, Inscore F. Rapid Detection and Identification of Overdose Drugs in Saliva by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Using Fused Gold Colloids. Pharmaceutics. 2011; 3(3):425-439.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farquharson, Stuart; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Huang, Hermes; Inscore, Frank. 2011. "Rapid Detection and Identification of Overdose Drugs in Saliva by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Using Fused Gold Colloids." Pharmaceutics 3, no. 3: 425-439.

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