Next Article in Journal
The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Iron Preparations
Next Article in Special Issue
Nano Delivers Big: Designing Molecular Missiles for Cancer Therapeutics
Previous Article in Journal
The Influence of Milling on the Dissolution Performance of Simvastatin
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Pharmaceutics 2011, 3(1), 1-11; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics3010001

Anti-PEG IgM Response against PEGylated Liposomes in Mice and Rats

Department of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics, Subdivision of Biopharmaceutical Science, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-78-1, Sho-machi, Tokushima 770-8505, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 November 2010 / Revised: 15 December 2010 / Accepted: 24 December 2010 / Published: 27 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [173 KB, uploaded 27 December 2010]   |  


We have reported that PEGylated liposomes lose their long-circulating properties when they are administered repeatedly at certain intervals to the same animal. This unexpected phenomenon is referred to as the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon. We recently showed that the ABC phenomenon is triggered via the abundant secretion of anti-PEG IgM in response to the first dose of PEGylated liposomes. However, the details of the underlying mechanism for the induction of anti-PEG IgM production are yet to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that the spleen is a major organ involved in the secretion of anti-PEG IgM in mice and rats. Anti-PEG IgM production was detected in nude, T-cell deficient mice, but not in SCID mice with B- and T-cell deficiencies. These observations indicate that splenic B-cells secret anti-PEG IgM without help from T-cells. Sequential injections of PEGylated liposomes into the same mice did not promote isotype switching from IgM to IgG. Accordingly, PEGylated liposomes may function as a type-2, T-cell-independent antigen (TI-2 antigen) during anti-PEG IgM production. Although the underlying mechanism that causes an anti-PEG IgM response against PEGylated liposomes is not yet clear, our findings give implications in revealing the anti-PEG IgM response against PEGylated liposome. View Full-Text
Keywords: Polyethyleneglycol (PEG); PEGylated liposome; Anti-PEG IgM; Accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon; spleen Polyethyleneglycol (PEG); PEGylated liposome; Anti-PEG IgM; Accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon; spleen

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ichihara, M.; Shimizu, T.; Imoto, A.; Hashiguchi, Y.; Uehara, Y.; Ishida, T.; Kiwada, H. Anti-PEG IgM Response against PEGylated Liposomes in Mice and Rats. Pharmaceutics 2011, 3, 1-11.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Pharmaceutics EISSN 1999-4923 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top