Next Article in Journal
Twin Screw Granulation: An Investigation of the Effect of Barrel Fill Level
Next Article in Special Issue
Oral Bioavailability of Kinsenoside in Beagle Dogs Measured by LC-MS/MS: Improvement of Ex Vivo Stability of a Lactone-Containing Compound
Previous Article in Journal
Therapeutic Potency of Nanoformulations of siRNAs and shRNAs in Animal Models of Cancers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of (S)-Ketoprofen Co-Administered with Caffeine: A Preclinical Study in Arthritic Rats
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020066

Review of Intraocular Pharmacokinetics of Anti-Infectives Commonly Used in the Treatment of Infectious Endophthalmitis

1
Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy Institute, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2
Clinical Pharmacology Group, Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
3
Pharmacy Department, Clinical University Hospital Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
4
Ophthalmology Department, Clinical University Hospital Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
5
Department of Surgery and Medical-Surgical Specialties and CIMUS, University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preclinical Pharmacokinetics and Bioanalysis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [670 KB, uploaded 29 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Although intravitreal administration of anti-infectives represents the standard treatment for infectious endophthalmitis, the knowledge about their pharmacokinetics is still limited. In this review, we aimed to summarise the factors influencing the pharmacokinetics of the anti-infective agents. We have conducted a comprehensive review of the preclinical pharmacokinetic parameters obtained in different studies of intravitreal injections of anti-infectives performed on animals, mainly rabbits. The two aspects with the biggest influence on pharmacokinetics are the distribution in the vitreous humour and the elimination through the posterior segment. The distribution can be affected by the molecular weight of the drug, the convection flow of the vitreous, the condition of the vitreous humour depending on the age of the patient, the possible interactions between the drug and the components of the vitreous, and the presence of vitrectomy. Meanwhile, the elimination includes the metabolism of the drug, the clearance via the anterior and posterior routes, and the possible inflammation of the eye resulting from the disease. Understanding the pharmacokinetics of the anti-infectives used in clinical practice is essential for a correct application. The information provided in this review could offer guidance for selecting the best therapeutic option according to the characteristics of the drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-infectives; intravitreal; endophthalmitis; pharmacokinetics; infection anti-infectives; intravitreal; endophthalmitis; pharmacokinetics; infection
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Luaces-Rodríguez, A.; González-Barcia, M.; Blanco-Teijeiro, M.J.; Gil-Martínez, M.; Gonzalez, F.; Gómez-Ulla, F.; Lamas, M.-J.; Otero-Espinar, F.-J.; Fernández-Ferreiro, A. Review of Intraocular Pharmacokinetics of Anti-Infectives Commonly Used in the Treatment of Infectious Endophthalmitis. Pharmaceutics 2018, 10, 66.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Pharmaceutics EISSN 1999-4923 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top