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Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020038

Chitosan Glutamate-Coated Niosomes: A Proposal for Nose-to-Brain Delivery

1
Center for Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (ITT), Viale Regina Elena 291, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Sapienza Università di Roma, P.zzle A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy
3
Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK
4
Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome, Italy
5
Center for Nanotechnology for Engineering (CNIS), Sapienza University of Rome, P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
Federica Rinaldi and Patrizia N. Hanieh equally contributed to the work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nose to Brain Delivery)
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Abstract

The aim of this in vitro study is to prepare and characterize drug free and pentamidine loaded chitosan glutamate coated niosomes for intranasal drug delivery to reach the brain through intranasal delivery. Mucoadhesive properties and stability testing in various environments were evaluated to examine the potential of these formulations to be effective drug delivery vehicles for intranasal delivery to the brain. Samples were prepared using thin film hydration method. Changes in size and ζ-potential of coated and uncoated niosomes with and without loading of pentamidine in various conditions were assessed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), while size and morphology were also studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Bilayer properties and mucoadhesive behavior were investigated by fluorescence studies and DLS analyses, respectively. Changes in vesicle size and ζ-potential values were shown after addition of chitosan glutamate to niosomes, and when in contact with mucin solution. In particular, interactions with mucin were observed in both drug free and pentamidine loaded niosomes regardless of the presence of the coating. The characteristics of the proposed systems, such as pentamidine entrapment and mucin interaction, show promising results to deliver pentamidine or other possible drugs to the brain via nasal administration. View Full-Text
Keywords: nose to brain delivery; central nervous system (CNS); chitosan glutamate; niosomes; mucin; pentamidine; dynamic light scattering (DLS); atomic force microscopy (AFM) nose to brain delivery; central nervous system (CNS); chitosan glutamate; niosomes; mucin; pentamidine; dynamic light scattering (DLS); atomic force microscopy (AFM)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Rinaldi, F.; Hanieh, P.N.; Chan, L.K.N.; Angeloni, L.; Passeri, D.; Rossi, M.; Wang, J.T.-W.; Imbriano, A.; Carafa, M.; Marianecci, C. Chitosan Glutamate-Coated Niosomes: A Proposal for Nose-to-Brain Delivery. Pharmaceutics 2018, 10, 38.

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