Next Article in Journal
Ultrastructural Characterization of Membrane Rearrangements Induced by Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection
Previous Article in Journal
SGS3 Cooperates with RDR6 in Triggering Geminivirus-Induced Gene Silencing and in Suppressing Geminivirus Infection in Nicotiana Benthamiana
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2017, 9(9), 250; doi:10.3390/v9090250

Using Next Generation Sequencing to Identify and Quantify the Genetic Composition of Resistance-Breaking Commercial Isolates of Cydia pomonella Granulovirus

Institute for Biological Control, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Julius Kühn Institute, Heinrichstraße 243, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Karyn Johnson
Received: 21 May 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1216 KB, uploaded 5 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

The use of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) isolates as biological control agents of codling moth (CM) larvae is important in organic and integrated pome fruit production worldwide. The commercially available isolates CpGV-0006, CpGV-R5, and CpGV-V15 have been selected for the control of CpGV resistant CM populations in Europe. In infection experiments, CpGV-0006 and CpGV-R5 were able to break type I resistance and to a lower extent also type III resistance, whereas CpGV-V15 overcame type I and the rarely occurring type II and type III resistance. The genetic background of the three isolates was investigated with next generation sequencing (NGS) tools by comparing their nucleotide compositions to whole genome alignments of five CpGV isolates representing the known genetic diversity of the CpGV genome groups A to E. Based on the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Illumina sequencing reads, we found that the two isolates CpGV-0006 and CpGV-R5 have highly similar genome group compositions, consisting of about two thirds of the CpGV genome group E and one third of genome group A. In contrast, CpGV-V15 is composed of equal parts of CpGV genome group B and E. According to the identified genetic composition of these isolates, their efficacy towards different resistance types can be explained and predictions on the success of resistance management strategies in resistant CM populations can be made. View Full-Text
Keywords: codling moth; granulovirus; Baculoviridae; resistance; resistance testing; resistance management; genome diversity; genome composition; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) codling moth; granulovirus; Baculoviridae; resistance; resistance testing; resistance management; genome diversity; genome composition; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Alletti, G.G.; Sauer, A.J.; Weihrauch, B.; Fritsch, E.; Undorf-Spahn, K.; Wennmann, J.T.; Jehle, J.A. Using Next Generation Sequencing to Identify and Quantify the Genetic Composition of Resistance-Breaking Commercial Isolates of Cydia pomonella Granulovirus. Viruses 2017, 9, 250.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top