Classification of Cowpox Viruses into Several Distinct Clades and Identification of a Novel Lineage
AbstractCowpox virus (CPXV) was considered as uniform species within the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV). Previous phylogenetic analysis indicated that CPXV is polyphyletic and isolates may cluster into different clades with two of these clades showing genetic similarities to either variola (VARV) or vaccinia viruses (VACV). Further analyses were initiated to assess both the genetic diversity and the evolutionary background of circulating CPXVs. Here we report the full-length sequences of 20 CPXV strains isolated from different animal species and humans in Germany. A phylogenetic analysis of altogether 83 full-length OPV genomes confirmed the polyphyletic character of the species CPXV and suggested at least four different clades. The German isolates from this study mainly clustered into two CPXV-like clades, and VARV- and VACV-like strains were not observed. A single strain, isolated from a cotton-top tamarin, clustered distantly from all other CPXVs and might represent a novel and unique evolutionary lineage. The classification of CPXV strains into clades roughly followed their geographic origin, with the highest clade diversity so far observed for Germany. Furthermore, we found evidence for recombination between OPV clades without significant disruption of the observed clustering. In conclusion, this analysis markedly expands the number of available CPXV full-length sequences and confirms the co-circulation of several CPXV clades in Germany, and provides the first data about a new evolutionary CPXV lineage. View Full-Text
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Franke, A.; Pfaff, F.; Jenckel, M.; Hoffmann, B.; Höper, D.; Antwerpen, M.; Meyer, H.; Beer, M.; Hoffmann, D. Classification of Cowpox Viruses into Several Distinct Clades and Identification of a Novel Lineage. Viruses 2017, 9, 142.
Franke A, Pfaff F, Jenckel M, Hoffmann B, Höper D, Antwerpen M, Meyer H, Beer M, Hoffmann D. Classification of Cowpox Viruses into Several Distinct Clades and Identification of a Novel Lineage. Viruses. 2017; 9(6):142.Chicago/Turabian Style
Franke, Annika; Pfaff, Florian; Jenckel, Maria; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Antwerpen, Markus; Meyer, Hermann; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Donata. 2017. "Classification of Cowpox Viruses into Several Distinct Clades and Identification of a Novel Lineage." Viruses 9, no. 6: 142.