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Viruses 2017, 9(4), 73; doi:10.3390/v9040073

The Transmembrane Morphogenesis Protein gp1 of Filamentous Phages Contains Walker A and Walker B Motifs Essential for Phage Assembly

Sebastian Leptihn, Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 4 April 2017 / Published: 9 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Microbes)
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Abstract

In contrast to lytic phages, filamentous phages are assembled in the inner membrane and secreted across the bacterial envelope without killing the host. For assembly and extrusion of the phage across the host cell wall, filamentous phages code for membrane-embedded morphogenesis proteins. In the outer membrane of Escherichia coli, the protein gp4 forms a pore-like structure, while gp1 and gp11 form a complex in the inner membrane of the host. By comparing sequences with other filamentous phages, we identified putative Walker A and B motifs in gp1 with a conserved lysine in the Walker A motif (K14), and a glutamic and aspartic acid in the Walker B motif (D88, E89). In this work we demonstrate that both, Walker A and Walker B, are essential for phage production. The crucial role of these key residues suggests that gp1 might be a molecular motor driving phage assembly. We further identified essential residues for the function of the assembly complex. Mutations in three out of six cysteine residues abolish phage production. Similarly, two out of six conserved glycine residues are crucial for gp1 function. We hypothesise that the residues represent molecular hinges allowing domain movement for nucleotide binding and phage assembly. View Full-Text
Keywords: filamentous phage; M13; gp1; zonula occludens toxin (Zot); phage assembly; assembly complex; ATPase; membrane protein; molecular hinge; secretion; Walker motifs filamentous phage; M13; gp1; zonula occludens toxin (Zot); phage assembly; assembly complex; ATPase; membrane protein; molecular hinge; secretion; Walker motifs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Loh, B.; Haase, M.; Mueller, L.; Kuhn, A.; Leptihn, S. The Transmembrane Morphogenesis Protein gp1 of Filamentous Phages Contains Walker A and Walker B Motifs Essential for Phage Assembly. Viruses 2017, 9, 73.

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