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Viruses 2017, 9(4), 69; doi:10.3390/v9040069

Identifying and Characterizing Interplay between Hepatitis B Virus X Protein and Smc5/6

1
Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center (CMU), 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 3 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Hepatitis B Virus Research)
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Abstract

Hepatitis B X protein (HBx) plays an essential role in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication cycle, but the function of HBx has been elusive until recently. It was recently shown that transcription from the HBV genome (covalently-closed circular DNA, cccDNA) is inhibited by the structural maintenance of chromosome 5/6 complex (Smc5/6), and that a key function of HBx is to redirect the DNA-damage binding protein 1 (DDB1) E3 ubiquitin ligase to target this complex for degradation. By doing so, HBx alleviates transcriptional repression by Smc5/6 and stimulates HBV gene expression. In this review, we discuss in detail how the interplay between HBx and Smc5/6 was identified and characterized. We also discuss what is known regarding the repression of cccDNA transcription by Smc5/6, the timing of HBx expression, and the potential role of HBx in promoting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). View Full-Text
Keywords: HBx; HBV; DDB1; Smc5/6; cccDNA HBx; HBV; DDB1; Smc5/6; cccDNA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Livingston, C.M.; Ramakrishnan, D.; Strubin, M.; Fletcher, S.P.; Beran, R.K. Identifying and Characterizing Interplay between Hepatitis B Virus X Protein and Smc5/6. Viruses 2017, 9, 69.

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